All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

PLOS ONE  2014 

Evaluating Group Housing Strategies for the Ex-Situ Conservation of Harlequin Frogs (Atelopus spp.) Using Behavioral and Physiological Indicators

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090218

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

We have established ex situ assurance colonies of two endangered Panamanian harlequin frogs, Atelopus certus and Atelopus glyphus, but observed that males fought with each other when housed as a group. Housing frogs individually eliminated this problem, but created space constraints. To evaluate the potential stress effects from aggressive interactions when grouping frogs, we housed male frogs in replicated groups of one, two, and eight. We measured aggressive behavioral interactions and fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (GC) concentrations as indicators of stress in each tank. In both small and large groups, frogs initially interacted aggressively, but aggressive interactions and fecal GCs declined significantly after the first 2 weeks of being housed together, reaching the lowest levels by week 4. We conclude that aggressive interactions in same-sex groups of captive Atelopus may initially cause stress, but the frogs become habituated within a few weeks and they can safely be housed in same-sex groups for longer periods of time.

References

[1]  Stuart SN, Chanson JS, Cox NA, Young BE, Rodrigues ASL, et al. (2004) Status and Trends of Amphibian Declines and Extinctions Worldwide. Science 306: 1783–1786. doi: 10.1126/science.1103538
[2]  Zippel K, Johnson K, Gagliardo R, Gibson R, McFadden M, et al. (2011) The Amphibian Ark: a global community for ex situ conservation of amphibians. Herpetological Conservation and Biology 6: 340–352.
[3]  La Marca E, Lips KR, Lotters S, Puschendorf R, Ibá?ez R, et al. (2005) Catastrophic population declines and extinctions in neotropical Harlequin frogs (Bufonidae: Atelopus) Biotropica. 37: 190–201. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-7429.2005.00026.x
[4]  Crawford AJ, Lips KR, Bermingham E (2010) Epidemic disease decimates amphibian abundance, species diversity, and evolutionary history in the highlands of central Panama. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences: doi: 10.1073/pnas.0914115107.
[5]  Lips K, Ibá?ez R, Bola?os F, Chaves G, Solís F, et al. (2008) Atelopus chiriquiensis. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species Version 20102 wwwiucnredlistorg Downloaded on 01 August 2010.
[6]  Schad K (2008) Amphibian Population Management Guidelines. Amphibian Ark Amphibian Population Management Workshop December 10–11, 2007 San Diego: Amphibian Ark, http://www.amphibianark.org/pdf/Aark material/AArk Amphibian Population Management Guidelines.pdf. Accessed Feb 13, 2014.
[7]  Frankham R, Briscoe D, Ballou J (2002) Introduction to conservation genetics: Cambridge Univ Press.
[8]  Jaslow AP (1979) Vocalization and aggression in Atelopus chiriquiensis (Amphibia, Anura, Bufonidae). Journal of Herpetology 13: 141–145. doi: 10.2307/1563919
[9]  Lindquist ED, Hetherington TE (1996) Field Studies on Visual and Acoustic Signaling in the “Earless” Panamanian Golden Frog, Atelopus zeteki. Journal of Herpetology 30: 347. doi: 10.2307/1565171
[10]  Cocroft RB, McDiarmid RW, Jaslow AP, Ruiz-Carranza PM (1990) Vocalizations of eight species of Atelopus (Anura: Bufonidae) with comments on communication in the genus. Copeia: 631–643.
[11]  Crump ML (1986) Homing and Site Fidelity in a Neotropical Frog, Atelopus varius (Bufonidae). Copeia 1986: 438–444. doi: 10.2307/1445001
[12]  Goymann W, Wingfield JC (2004) Allostatic load, social status and stress hormones: the costs of social status matter. Animal Behaviour 67: 591–602. doi: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2003.08.007
[13]  Narayan EJ (2013) Non-invasive reproductive and stress endocrinology in amphibian conservation physiology. Conservation Physiology 1: 1–16. doi: 10.1093/conphys/cot011
[14]  Romero LM (2004) Physiological stress in ecology: lessons from biomedical research. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 19: 249–255. doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2004.03.008
[15]  Sapolsky RM, Romero LM, Munck AU (2000) How do glucocorticoids influence stress responses? Integrating permissive, suppressive, stimulatory, and preparative actions. Endocrine reviews 21: 55–89. doi: 10.1210/edrv.21.1.0389
[16]  Cockrem JF, Barrett DP, Candy EJ, Potter MA (2009) Corticosterone responses in birds: Individual variation and repeatability in Adelie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) and other species, and the use of power analysis to determine sample sizes. General and comparative endocrinology 163: 158–168. doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2009.03.029
[17]  Sheriff MJ, Dantzer B, Delehanty B, Palme R, Boonstra R (2011) Measuring stress in wildlife: techniques for quantifying glucocorticoids. Oecologia 166: 869–887. doi: 10.1007/s00442-011-1943-y
[18]  Belden L, Moore I, Mason R, Wingfield J, Blaustein A (2003) Survival, the hormonal stress response and UV avoidance in Cascades Frog tadpoles (Rana cascadae) exposed to UVB radiation. Functional Ecology 17: 409–416. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2435.2003.00746.x
[19]  Gendron AD, Bishop CA, Fortin R, Hontela A (1997) In vivo testing of the functional integrity of the corticosterone-producing axis in mudpuppy (amphibia) exposed to chlorinated hydrocarbons in the wild. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 16: 1694–1706. doi: 10.1002/etc.5620160818
[20]  Narayan EJ, Molinia FC, Kindermann C, Cockrem JF, Hero J-M (2011) Urinary corticosterone responses to capture and toe-clipping in the cane toad (Rhinella marina) indicate that toe-clipping is a stressor for amphibians. General and comparative endocrinology 174: 238–245. doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2011.09.004
[21]  Narayan EJ, Cockrem JF, Hero J-M (2013) Sight of a Predator Induces a Corticosterone Stress Response and Generates Fear in an Amphibian. PLoS one 8: e73564. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0073564
[22]  Narayan EJ, Cockrem JF, Hero J-M (2011) Urinary corticosterone metabolite responses to capture and captivity in the cane toad Rhinella marina. General and comparative endocrinology 173: 371–377. doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2011.06.015
[23]  Graham LH, Brown JL (1996) Cortisol metabolism in the domestic cat and implications for non-invasive monitoring of adrenocortical function in endangered felids. Zoo Biology 15: 71–82. doi: 10.1002/(sici)1098-2361(1996)15:1<71::aid-zoo7>3.3.co;2-q
[24]  Brown JL, Wasser SK, Wildt DE, Graham LH (1994) Comparative aspects of steroid hormone metabolism and ovarian activity in felids, measured noninvasively in feces. Biology of reproduction 51: 776–786. doi: 10.1095/biolreprod51.4.776
[25]  Wasser SK, Hunt KE, Brown JL, Cooper K, Crockett CM, et al. (2000) A generalized fecal glucocorticoid assay for use in a diverse array of nondomestic mammalian and avian species. General and comparative endocrinology 120: 260–275. doi: 10.1006/gcen.2000.7557
[26]  Young K, Walker S, Lanthier C, Waddell W, Monfort SL, et al. (2004) Noninvasive monitoring of adrenocortical activity in carnivores by fecal glucocorticoid analyses. General and comparative endocrinology 137: 148–165. doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2004.02.016
[27]  Munro C, Lasley B (1988) Non-radiometric assays: technology and application in polypeptide and steroid hormone detection. Non-radiometric methods for immunoassay of steroid hormones. New York: Allan Liss Corporation. pp. 289–329.
[28]  Millspaugh JJ, Washburn BE (2004) Use of fecal glucocorticoid metabolite measures in conservation biology research: considerations for application and interpretation. General and comparative endocrinology 138: 189–199. doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2004.07.002
[29]  Haislip NA, Hoverman J, Miller DL, Gray MJ (2012) Natural stressors and disease risk: does the threat of predation increase amphibian susceptibility to ranavirus? Canadian Journal of Zoology 90: 893–902. doi: 10.1139/z2012-060

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us

service@oalib.com

QQ:3279437679

微信:OALib Journal