All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

PLOS ONE  2014 

Total Nitrogen Concentrations in Surface Water of Typical Agro- and Forest Ecosystems in China, 2004-2009

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0092850

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

We assessed the total nitrogen (N) concentrations of 28 still surface water (lake and pond), and 42 flowing surface water (river), monitoring sites under 29 typical terrestrial ecosystems of the Chinese Ecosystem Research Network (CERN) using monitoring data collected between 2004 and 2009. The results showed that the median total N concentrations of still surface water were significantly higher in the agro- (1.5 mg·L?1) and oasis agro- ecosystems (1.8 mg·L?1) than in the forest ecosystems (1.0 mg·L?1). This was also the case for flowing surface water, with total N concentrations of 2.4 mg·L?1, 1.8 mg·L?1 and 0.5 mg·L?1 for the agro-, oasis agro- and forest ecosystems, respectively. In addition, more than 50% of the samples in agro- and oasis agro- ecosystems were seriously polluted (>1.0 mg·L?1) by N. Spatial analysis showed that the total N concentrations in northern and northwestern regions were higher than those in the southern region for both still and flowing surface waters under agro- and oasis agro- ecosystems, with more than 50% of samples exceeding 1.0 mg·L?1 (the Class III limit of the Chinese National Quality Standards for Surface Waters) in surface water in the northern region. Nitrogen pollution in agro- ecosystems is mainly due to fertilizer applications, while the combination of fertilizer and irrigation exacerbates nitrogen pollution in oasis agro- ecosystems.

References

[1]  Lewis WM Jr (2011) Global primary production of lakes: 19th Baldi Memorial Lecture. Inland Waters 1(1): 1–28. doi: 10.5268/iw-1.1.384
[2]  OECD (1982) Eutrophication of Waters-monitoring, Assessment and Control; Paris, France: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development.
[3]  Tian YH, Yin B, Yang LZ, Yin SX, Zhu ZL (2007) Nitrogen runoff and leaching losses during rice-wheat rotations in Taihu Lake region, China. Pedosphere 17(4): 445–456. doi: 10.1016/s1002-0160(07)60054-x
[4]  Lassaletta L, García-Gómez H, Gimeno BS, Rovira JV (2009) Agriculture-induced increase in nitrate concentrations in stream waters of a large Mediterranean catchment over 25 years (1981–2005). Science of the Total Environment 407(23): 6034–6043. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.08.002
[5]  Mian IA, Begum SM, Ridealg M, McClean CJ, Cresser MS (2010) Spatial and temporal trends in nitrate concentration in the river Derwent, North Yorkshire and its need for NVZ status. Science of the Total Environment 408(4): 702–712. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.11.020
[6]  US EPA (2002) National Recommended Water Quality Criteria: 2002. Office of Water, EPA-822-R-02–047, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC. http://www.epa.gov/waterscience/standard?s/wqcriteria.html.
[7]  China Ministry of Environmental Protection, China General Administration of Quality Supervision and Quarantine (2002) Environmental Quality Standards for Surface Water. GB3838-2002.
[8]  Yang AL, Zhu YM (1999) Study on nonpoint source pollution in surface water environment. Advance of Environmental Sciences 7(5): 60–67.
[9]  Bao QS, Wang HD (1996) Perspective on water environment and nonpoint source pollution in China. Geographical Sciences 16(1): 66–71.
[10]  Xu H, Liu ZP, Jiao JG, Yang LZ (2008) Nitrogen pollution status of various types of passing-by water bodies in upper reaches of Taihu Lake. Chinese Journal of Ecology 27(1): 43–49.
[11]  Liu ZD, Yu XG, Wang ZX (2003) The current water pollution of Taihu drainage basin and the new management proposals. Journal of Natural Resources 16(4): 467–474.
[12]  Cai LY, Li Y, Zheng ZH (2010) Temporal and spatial distribution of nitrogen and phosphorus of lake systems in China and their impact on eutrophication. Earth and Environment 38 (2): 235–241.
[13]  Wang LX, Lü JL, Zhuang SY, Hu ZY (2009) Characteristics of phosphorus adsorption on paddy soil and river sediment in east China. Soils 41(3): 402–407.
[14]  He B, Oki K, Wang Y, Oki T (2009b) Using remotely sensed imagery to estimate potential annual pollutant loads in river basins. Water Science and Technology 60 (8): 2009–2015. doi: 10.2166/wst.2009.596
[15]  He B, Oki T, Kanae S, Mouri G, Kodama K, et al. (2009a) Integrated biogeochemical modelling of nitrogen load from anthropogenic and natural sources in Japan. Ecological Modelling 220(18): 2325–2334. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2009.05.018
[16]  Galloway JN, Cowling EB (2002) Reactive nitrogen and the world: 200 years of change. Ambio 31(2): 64–71. doi: 10.1639/0044-7447(2002)031[0064:rnatwy]2.0.co;2
[17]  Galloway JN, Schlesinger WH, Levy II H, Michaels A, Schnoor JL (1995) Nitrogen fixation: anthropogenic enhancement-environmental response. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 9(2): 235–252. doi: 10.1029/95gb00158
[18]  Vitousek PM, Aber JD, Howarth RW, Likens GE, Matson PA, et al. (1997) Human alteration of the global nitrogen cycle: Sources and consequences. Ecological Applications 7(3): 737–750. doi: 10.1890/1051-0761(1997)007[0737:haotgn]2.0.co;2
[19]  Isermann K (1991) Share of agriculture in nitrogen and phosphorus emissions into the surface waters of Western Europe against the background of their eutrophication. Fertilizer Research 26(1–3): 253–269. doi: 10.1007/bf01048764
[20]  National Research Council (1993b) Soil and water quality: an agenda for agriculture. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., USA.
[21]  Smil V (1999) Nitrogen in crop production: An account of global flows. Global Biogeochemistry Cycles 13(2): 647–662. doi: 10.1029/1999gb900015
[22]  Zhang D, Li G, Yang YS, Zhang X, Guo H (2009) Bio-geological processes of nitrogen transport and transformation in the aeration zone and aquifer. Hydrological Sciences Journal 54(2): 316–326. doi: 10.1623/hysj.54.2.316
[23]  Zhang FS, Wang YQ, Zhang WF, Cui ZL, Ma WQ, et al. (2008) Nutrient use efficiencies of major cereal crops in China and measures for improvement. Acta Pedologica Sinica 45(5): 915–924.
[24]  Hu YT, Liao Qian JH, Wang SW, Yan XY (2011) Statistical analysis and estimation of N leaching from agricultural fields in China. Soils 43 (1): 19–25.
[25]  Letcher RA, Giupponi C (2005) Policies and tools for sustainable water management in the European Union. Environmental Modeling & Software 20(2): 93–98. doi: 10.1016/j.envsoft.2004.01.003
[26]  Davies JM, Mazumder A (2003) Health and environmental policy issues in Canada: the role of watershed management in sustaining clean drinking water quality at surface sources. Journal of Environmental Management 68(3): 273–286. doi: 10.1016/s0301-4797(03)00070-7
[27]  The Central People’s Government of the People’s Republic of China (2012) Water pollution prevention program of Yangtze River basin (2011-2015). Gazette of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China 11: 51–60.
[28]  Yuan GF, Tang DY, Sun XM (2007) Water Monitoring Protocol of Chinese Ecosystem Research Network. Beijing: China Environmental Science Press.
[29]  Xie YX, Xiong ZQ, Xing GX, Sun GQ, Zhu ZL (2007) Assessment of nitrogen pollutant sources in surface waters of Taihu Lake region. Pedosphere 17(2): 200–208. doi: 10.1016/s1002-0160(07)60026-5
[30]  Chen LD, Peng HJ, Fu BJ, Qiu J, Zhang SR (2005) Seasonal variation of nitrogen-concentration in the surface water and its relationship with land use in a catchment of northern China. Journal of Environmental Science 17(2): 224–231.
[31]  Meng LY, Shi MW, Yan XX, Lu H, Zhu XL (2009) Evaluation of Nonpoint Source Pollution on Nitrogen and Phosphorus of Surface Water of Hutuo River Valley under Background State. Geography and Geo-information Science 25(3): 95–98.
[32]  Mouri G, Takizawa S, Oki T (2011) Spatial and temporal variation in nutrient parameters in stream water in a rural-urban catchment, Shikoku, Japan: Effects of land cover and human impact. Journal of Environmental Management 92(7): 1837–1848. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2011.03.005
[33]  Mueller-Warrant GW, Griffith SM, Whittaker GW, Banowetz GM, Pfender WF, et al. (2012) Impact of land use patterns and agricultural practices on water quality in the Calapooia River Basin of western Oregon. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 67 (3): 183–201. doi: 10.2489/jswc.67.3.183
[34]  Beaudoin N, Saad JK, Laethem CV, Machet JM, Maucorps J, et al. (2005) Nitrate leaching in intensive agriculture in Northern France: Effect of farming practices, soils and crop rotations. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 111(1–4): 292–310. doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2005.06.006
[35]  Li J, Lu WX, Zeng XK, Yuan JH, Yu FR (2010) Analysis of spatial-temporal distributions of nitrate-N concentration in Shitoukoumen catchment in northeast China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 169(1–4): 335–345. doi: 10.1007/s10661-009-1174-4
[36]  Xie J, Zhang XY, Xu ZW, Sun XM, Ballantine D (2013) Total Phosphorus concentrations in surface water of Typical Chinese Ecosystems, 2004–2010. Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering, DOI: 10.1007/s11783-013-0601-5.
[37]  Larned ST, Scarsbrook MR, Snelder TH, Norton NJ, Biggs BJF (2004) Water quality in low-elevation streams and rivers of New Zealand: recent state and trends in contrasting land-cover classes. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 38(2): 347–366. doi: 10.1080/00288330.2004.9517243
[38]  Zhang Z, Fukushima T, Shi PJ, Tao FL, Onda Y, et al. (2008) Baseflow concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus in forested headwaters in Japan. Science of the Total Environment 402(1): 113–122. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2008.04.045
[39]  Roche LM, Kromschroeder L, Atwill ER, Dahlgren RA, Tate KW (2013) Water quality conditions associated with cattle grazing and recreation on national forest lands. PLoS ONE 8(6): e68127. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068127
[40]  Stoddard JL (1994) Long-term changes in watershed retention of nitrogen: Its causes and aquatic consequences. Environmental Chemistry of Lakes and Reservoirs 237: 223–284. doi: 10.1021/ba-1994-0237.ch008
[41]  Boesch DF, Brinsfield RB, Magnien RE (2001) Chesapeake Bay eutrophication: Scientific understanding, ecosystem restoration, and challenges for agriculture. Journal of Environment Quality 30(2): 303–320. doi: 10.2134/jeq2001.302303x
[42]  Dayyani S, Prasher SO, Madani A, Madramootoo CA (2012) Impact of climate change on the hydrology and nitrogen pollution in a tile-drained agricultural watershed in eastern Canada. Transactions of the Asabe 55(2): 389–401. doi: 10.13031/2013.41380
[43]  Duggan IC, Collier KJ, Champion PD, Croker GF, Davies-Colley RJ, et al. (2002) Ecoregional differences in macrophyte and macroinvertebrate communities between Westland and Waikato: are all New Zealand lowland streams the same? New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 36(4): 831–845. doi: 10.1080/00288330.2002.9517136
[44]  Kemp MJ, Dodds WK (2001) Spatial and temporal patterns of nitrogen concentrations in pristine and agriculturally-influenced prairie streams. Biogeochemistry 53(2): 125–141.
[45]  Dodds WK, Welch EB (2000) Establishing nutrient criteria in streams. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 19(1): 186–196. doi: 10.2307/1468291
[46]  US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (2000) US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Nutrient criteria technical guidance manual: rivers and streams, EPA-822-B-00-002. US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
[47]  Kaushal SS, Groffman PM, Band LE, Elliott EM, Shields CA, et al. (2011) Tracking nonpoint source nitrogen pollution in human-impacted watersheds. Environmental Science & Technology 45(19): 8225–8232. doi: 10.1021/es200779e
[48]  Alvarez-Cobelas M, Angeler DG, Sánchez-Carrillo S (2008) Export of nitrogen from catchments: A worldwide analysis. Environmental Pollution 156(2): 261–269. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2008.02.016
[49]  Ometto JPHB, Martinelli LA, Ballester MV, Gessner A, Krusche AV, et al. (2000) Effects of land use on water chemistry and macroinvertebrates in two streams of Piracicaba river basin, southeast Brazil. Freshwater Biology 44(2): 327–337. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2427.2000.00557.x
[50]  McKee LJ, Eyre BD, Hossain S, Pepperell PR (2001) Influence of climate, geology and humans on spatial and temporal nutrient geochemistry in the subtropical Richmond River catchment, Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 52(2): 235–248.
[51]  Likens GE, Buso (2006) DC (2006) Variation in streamwater chemistry throughout the Hubbard Brook Valley. Biogeochemistry 78(1): 1–30. doi: 10.1007/s10533-005-2024-2
[52]  Ren YF, Xu ZW, Zhang XY, Wang XK, Sun XM, et al.. (2013) Nitrogen pollution and source identification of urban ecosystem surface water in Beijing. Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering, DOI: 10.1007/s11783-012-0474-z.
[53]  Zhu B, Wang T, Xu TP, Kuang FH, Luo ZX, et al. (2006) Nonpoint-source nitrogen movement and its environmental effects in a small watershed in hilly area of purple soil. Journal of Mountain Science 24(5): 601–606.
[54]  Zhang XY, Xu ZW, Sun XM, Dong WY, Ballantine DJ (2013) Nitrate in shallow groundwater in typical agricultural and forest ecosystems in China, 2004–2010. Journal of Environmental Sciences. 25(5): 1007–1014. doi: 10.1016/s1001-0742(12)60139-9
[55]  Kvítek T, ?lábek P, Byst?icky V, Fu?ík P, Lexa M, et al. (2009) Changes of nitrate concentrations in surface waters influenced by land use in the crystalline complex of the Czech Republic. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 34(8–9): 541–551. doi: 10.1016/j.pce.2008.07.003
[56]  Boer PM (1996) Nutrient Emissions from agriculture in the Netherlands: causes and remedies. Water Science Technology. 33(4–5): 183–189. doi: 10.1016/0273-1223(96)00229-6
[57]  Kronvang B, Graesb?ll P, Larsen SE, Svendsen LM, Andersen HE (1996) Diffuse nutrient losses in Denmark. Water Science technology 33(4–5): 81–88. doi: 10.1016/0273-1223(96)00217-x
[58]  Shepard R (2000) Nitrogen and phosphorus management on Wisconsin farms: Lessons learned for agricultural water quality programs. Journal of Soil and Watershed Conservation 55(1): 63–68.
[59]  Zhu ZL, Chen DL (2002) Nitrogen fertilizer use in China: contributions to food production, impacts on the environment and best management strategies. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 63(2–3): 117–127.
[60]  Ju XT, Xing GX, Chen XP, Zhang SL, Zhang LJ, et al. (2009) Reducing environmental risk by improving N management in intensive Chinese agricultural systems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106(9): 3041–3046. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0813417106
[61]  Barton L, Colmer TD (2006) Irrigation and fertilizer strategies for minimising nitrogen leaching from turfgrass. Agricultural Water Management 80(1–3): 160–175. doi: 10.1016/j.agwat.2005.07.011
[62]  Cang HJ, Xu LF, Li Z, Ren H (2004) Nitrogen losses from farmland and agricultural nonpoint source pollution. Tropical Geography 24: 332–336.
[63]  Novotny V (2005) Diffuse pollution from agriculture in the world. In: Proceedings from the International Workshop on Where Do Fertilizers Go? Belgirate, Italy.
[64]  Nie SW, Gao W, Chen YQ, Sui P, Eneji AE (2009) Review of current status and research approaches to nitrogen pollution in farmlands. Agricultural Sciences in China 8(7): 843–849. doi: 10.1016/s1671-2927(08)60286-2
[65]  Zhao SZ (2003) Ecological environmental problems resulting from exploitation of water resources in Northwest China. Northwestern Geology 36(3): 92–96.
[66]  Krusche AV, de Camargo PB, Cerri CE, Ballester MV, Lara LBLS, et al. (2003) Acid rain and nitrogen deposition in a sub-tropical watershed (Piracicaba): ecosystem consequences. Environmental Pollution 121(3): 389–399. doi: 10.1016/s0269-7491(02)00235-x
[67]  Schindler DW (1988) Effects of acid rain on freshwater ecosystems. Science 239(4836): 149–157. doi: 10.1126/science.239.4836.149
[68]  Bergstr?m A, Jansson M (2006) Atmospheric nitrogen deposition has caused nitrogen enrichment and eutrophication of lakes in the northern hemisphere. Global Change Biology 12(4): 635–643. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2006.01129.x
[69]  Gorham E (1998) Acid deposition and its ecological effects: a brief history of research. Environmental Science & Policy 1(3): 153–166. doi: 10.1016/s1462-9011(98)00025-2
[70]  Huang ZL, Ding MM, Zhang ZP, Yi WM (1994) The hydrological processes and nitrogen dynamics in a monsoon evergreen broad-leafed forest of Dinghushan. Acta Phtoecologica Sinica 18(2): 194–199.
[71]  Zhou GY, Yan JH (2001) The influence of region atmospheric precipitation characteristics and its element inputs on the existence and development of Dinghushan forest ecosystems. Acta Ecologica Sinica 21(12): 2002– 2012.
[72]  Zhang Y, Liu XJ, Zhang FS, Ju XT, Zhou GY, et al. (2006) Spatial and temporal variation of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in North China Plain. Acta Ecologica Sinica 26(6): 1633–1638. doi: 10.1016/s1872-2032(06)60026-7

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus