All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

PLOS ONE  2014 

Reduction of Arterial Stiffness by Exercise Training Is Associated with Increasing Plasma Apelin Level in Middle-Aged and Older Adults

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0093545

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

Aging-induced deterioration of arterial stiffness is decreased by regular exercise, and increased nitric oxide (NO) production participates in this effect. Apelin regulates endothelial NO synthase in endothelial cells, promoting NO production. However, the effect of aerobic exercise training on circulating apelin levels in healthy middle-aged and older adults remains unknown. Accordingly, this study aimed to clarify the effects of regular aerobic exercise on apelin concentrations in middle-aged and older adults. Thirty-four healthy middle-aged and older subjects (67.0 ± 1.3 years) were randomly divided into two groups: exercise intervention and sedentary controls. Subjects in the training group completed 8-week of aerobic exercise training (60–70% peak oxygen uptake [VO2peak] for 45 min, 3 days/week). Before and after the intervention, we evaluated plasma apelin and nitrite/nitrate (NOx) concentrations, VO2peak, and arterial stiffness index. In the training group, VO2peak was significantly increased, and carotid β-stiffness was significantly decreased, after the intervention (P<0.05). Moreover, plasma apelin and NOx levels were significantly increased in the training group after the intervention (P<0.05). Additionally, there was a correlation between the training effects of plasma apelin levels and carotidβ-stiffness (r = ?0.508, P = 0.032) and plasma NOx levels (r = 0.494, P = 0.037). By contrast, none of these parameters changed significantly in the control group. These results suggest that the increased in plasma apelin levels may be associated with exercise training-induced alternation of arterial stiffness in middle-aged and older adults.

References

[1]  Vaitkevicius PV, Fleg JL, Engel JH, O'Connor FC, Wright JG, et al. (1994) Effects of age and aerobic capacity on arterial stiffness in healthy adults. Circulation 88: 1456–1462. doi: 10.1161/01.cir.88.4.1456
[2]  Arnett DK, Evans GW, Riley WA (1994) Arterial stiffness: a new cardiovascular risk factor? Am J Epidemiol 140: 669–682.
[3]  Blacher J, Asmar R, Djane S, London GM, Safar ME (1999) Aortic pulse wave velocity as a marker of cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients. Hypertension 33: 1111–1117. doi: 10.1161/01.hyp.33.5.1111
[4]  Laurent S, Boutouyrie P, Asmar R, Gautier I, Laloux B, et al. (2001) Aortic stiffness is an independent predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in hypertensive patients. Hypertension 37: 1236–1241. doi: 10.1161/01.hyp.37.5.1236
[5]  Rowe JW (1987) Clinical consequences of age-related impairments in vascular compliance. Am J Cardiol 60: 68G–71G. doi: 10.1016/0002-9149(87)90594-7
[6]  Mohiaddin RH, Underwood SR, Bogren HG, Firmin DN, Klipstein RH, et al. (1989) Regional aortic compliance studied by magnetic resonance imaging: the effects of age, training, and coronary artery disease. Br Heart J 62: 90–96. doi: 10.1136/hrt.62.2.90
[7]  Tanaka H, DeSouza CA, Seals DR (1998) Absence of age-related increase in central arterial stiffness in physically active women. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 18: 127–132. doi: 10.1161/01.atv.18.1.127
[8]  Tanaka H, Dinenno FA, Monahan KD, Clevenger CM, DeSouza CA, et al. (2000) Aging, habitual exercise, and dynamic arterial compliance. Circulation 102: 1270–1275. doi: 10.1161/01.cir.102.11.1270
[9]  Napoli C, Ignarro LJ (2001) Nitric oxide and atherosclerosis. Nitric Oxide 5: 88–97. doi: 10.1006/niox.2001.0337
[10]  Tanabe T, Maeda S, Miyauchi T, Iemitsu M, Takanashi M, et al. (2003) Exercise training improves ageing-induced decrease in eNOS expression of the aorta. Acta Physiol Scand 178: 3–10. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-201x.2003.01100.x
[11]  Maeda S, Tanabe T, Otsuki T, Sugawara J, Iemitsu M, et al. (2004) Moderate regular exercise increases basal production of nitric oxide in elderly women. Hypertens Res 27: 947–953. doi: 10.1291/hypres.27.947
[12]  Kleinz MJ, Davenport AP (2005) Emerging roles of apelin in biology and medicine. Pharmacol Ther 107: 198–211. doi: 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2005.04.001
[13]  Kleinz MJ, Skepper JN, Davenport AP (2005) Immunocytochemical localisation of the apelin receptor, APJ, to human cardiomyocytes, vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells. Regul Pept 126: 233–240. doi: 10.1016/j.regpep.2004.10.019
[14]  Tatemoto K, Hosoya M, Habata Y, Fujii R, Kakegawa T, et al. (1998) Isolation and characterization of a novel endogenous peptide ligand for the human APJ receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 251: 471–476. doi: 10.1006/bbrc.1998.9489
[15]  Goetze JP, Rehfeld JF, Carlsen J, Videbaek R, Andersen CB, et al. (2006) Apelin: a new plasma marker of cardiopulmonary disease. Regul Pept 133: 134–138. doi: 10.1016/j.regpep.2005.09.032
[16]  Przewlocka-Kosmala M, Kotwica T, Mysiak A, Kosmala W (2011) Reduced circulating apelin in essential hypertension and its association with cardiac dysfunction. J Hypertens 29: 971–979. doi: 10.1097/hjh.0b013e328344da76
[17]  Ishida J, Hashimoto T, Hashimoto Y, Nishiwaki S, Iguchi T, et al. (2004) Regulatory roles for APJ, a seven-transmembrane receptor related to angiotensin-type 1 receptor in blood pressure in vivo. J Biol Chem 279: 26274–26279. doi: 10.1074/jbc.m404149200
[18]  Lee DK, Saldivia VR, Nguyen T, Cheng R, George SR, et al. (2005) Modification of the terminal residue of apelin-13 antagonizes its hypotensive action. Endocrinology 146: 231–236. doi: 10.1210/en.2004-0359
[19]  Tatemoto K, Takayama K, Zou MX, Kumaki I, Zhang W, et al. (2001) The novel peptide apelin lowers blood pressure via a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism. Regul Pept 99: 87–92. doi: 10.1016/s0167-0115(01)00236-1
[20]  Kadoglou NP, Fotiadis G, Kapelouzou A, Kostakis A, Liapis CD, et al. (2013) The differential anti-inflammatory effects of exercise modalities and their association with early carotid atherosclerosis progression in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabet Med 30: e41–50. doi: 10.1111/dme.12055
[21]  Kadoglou NP, Vrabas IS, Kapelouzou A, Angelopoulou N (2012) The association of physical activity with novel adipokines in patients with type 2 diabetes. Eur J Intern Med 23: 137–142. doi: 10.1016/j.ejim.2011.10.020
[22]  Zhang J, Ren CX, Qi YF, Lou LX, Chen L, et al. (2006) Exercise training promotes expression of apelin and APJ of cardiovascular tissues in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Life Sci 79: 1153–1159. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2006.03.040
[23]  Tanaka H, Monahan KD, Seals DR (2001) Age-predicted maximal heart rate revisited. J Am Coll Cardiol 37: 153–156. doi: 10.1016/s0735-1097(00)01054-8
[24]  Kawano H, Tanaka H, Miyachi M (2006) Resistance training and arterial compliance: keeping the benefits while minimizing the stiffening. J Hypertens 24: 1753–1759. doi: 10.1097/01.hjh.0000242399.60838.14
[25]  Hirai T, Sasayama S, Kawasaki T, Yagi S (1989) Stiffness of systemic arteries in patients with myocardial infarction. A noninvasive method to predict severity of coronary atherosclerosis. Circulation 80: 78–86. doi: 10.1161/01.cir.80.1.78
[26]  Jia YX, Lu ZF, Zhang J, Pan CS, Yang JH, et al. (2007) Apelin activates L-arginine/nitric oxide synthase/nitric oxide pathway in rat aortas. Peptides 28: 2023–2029. doi: 10.1016/j.peptides.2007.07.016
[27]  Andersen CU, Hilberg O, Mellemkj?r S, Nielsen-Kudsk JE, Simonsen U, et al. (2011) Apelin and pulmonary hypertension. Pulm Circ 1: 334–346. doi: 10.4103/2045-8932.87299
[28]  Hambrecht R, Adams V, Erbs S, Linke A, Kr?nkel N, et al. (2003) Regular physical activity improves endothelial function in patients with coronary artery disease by increasing phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Circulation 107: 3152–3158. doi: 10.1161/01.cir.0000074229.93804.5c

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus