Objective The information on the changes of prevalence of MetS in China is limited. Our objective was to assess a 10-year’s change of the prevalence of MetS in a Chinese elderly population between 2001 and 2010. Methods We conducted two cross-sectional surveys in a representative sample of elderly population aged 60 to 95 years in Beijing in 2001 and 2010 respectively. MetS was defined according to the 2009 harmonizing definition. Results A total of 2,334 participants (943 male, 1,391 female) in 2001 and 2,102 participants (848 male, 1,254 female) in 2010 completed the survey. The prevalence of MetS was 50.4% (95%CI: 48.4%–52.4%) in 2001 and 58.1% (95%CI: 56.0%–60.2%) in 2010. The absolute change of prevalence of MetS was 7.7% over the 10-year’s period (p<0.001). The syndrome was more common in female than male in both survey years. Among the five components, hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-C had increased most, with an increase of 14.8% (from 29.4% to 44.2%) and 9.9% (from 28.3% to 38.2%) respectively. The adjusted ORs of MetS for CHD, stroke and CVD were 1.67(95%CI: 1.39–1.99), 1.50(95%CI: 1.19–1.88) and 1.70(95%CI: 1.43–2.01) respectively in 2001, and were 1.74(95%CI: 1.40–2.17), 1.25(95%CI: 0.95–1.63) and 1.52(95%CI: 1.25–1.86) respectively in 2010. Conclusion The prevalence of MetS is high and increasing rapidly in this Chinese elderly population. Participants with Mets and its individual components are at significantly elevated ORs for CVD. Urgent public health actions are needed to control MetS and its components, especially for dislipidemia.
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