All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

PLOS ONE  2013 

A Global Estimate of the Number of Coral Reef Fishers

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0065397

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

Overfishing threatens coral reefs worldwide, yet there is no reliable estimate on the number of reef fishers globally. We address this data gap by quantifying the number of reef fishers on a global scale, using two approaches - the first estimates reef fishers as a proportion of the total number of marine fishers in a country, based on the ratio of reef-related to total marine fish landed values. The second estimates reef fishers as a function of coral reef area, rural coastal population, and fishing pressure. In total, we find that there are 6 million reef fishers in 99 reef countries and territories worldwide, of which at least 25% are reef gleaners. Our estimates are an improvement over most existing fisher population statistics, which tend to omit accounting for gleaners and reef fishers. Our results suggest that slightly over a quarter of the world’s small-scale fishers fish on coral reefs, and half of all coral reef fishers are in Southeast Asia. Coral reefs evidently support the socio-economic well-being of numerous coastal communities. By quantifying the number of people who are employed as reef fishers, we provide decision-makers with an important input into planning for sustainable coral reef fisheries at the appropriate scale.

References

[1]  Whittingham E, Campbell J, Townsley P (2003) Poverty and Reefs. Paris: DFID–IMM–IOC/UNESCO. 260 p.
[2]  Sadovy Y (2005) Trouble on the reef: the imperative for managing vulnerable and valuable fisheries. Fish Fish 6: 167–185.
[3]  Hoegh-Guldberg O, Mumby P, Hooten A, Steneck R, Greenfield P, et al. (2007) Coral Reefs Under Rapid Climate Change and Ocean Acidification. Science 318: 1737–1742.
[4]  Hughes T, Baird A, Bellwood D, Card M, Connolly S, et al. (2003) Climate change, human impacts, and the resilience of coral reefs. Science 301: 929–933.
[5]  Burke L, Reytar K, Spalding M, Perry A (2011) Reefs at Risk Revisited. Washington DC: World Resources Institute. 114 p.
[6]  Bellwood D, Hughes T, Folke C, Nystrom M (2004) Confronting the coral reef crisis. Nature 429: 827–833.
[7]  Brewer T, Cinner J, Fisher R, Green A, Wilson S (2012) Market access, population density, and socioeconomic development explain diversity and functional group biomass of coral reef fish assemblages. Global Environ Chang 22: 399–406.
[8]  Cinner J, Graham N, Huchery C, MacNeil M (2012) Global effects of local human population density and distance to markets on the condition of coral reef fisheries. Conserv Biol DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2012.01933.x.
[9]  McClanahan T, Hicks C, Darling E (2008) Malthusian overfishing and efforts to overcome it on Kenyan coral reefs. Ecol Appl 18: 1516–1529.
[10]  Unsworth R, Cullen L (2010) Recognising the necessity for Indo-Pacific seagrass conservation. Conserv Lett 00: 1–11.
[11]  Sale P (2008) Management of coral reefs: Where we have gone wrong and what we can do about it. Mar Pollut Bull 56: 805–809.
[12]  Cushion N, Sullivan Sealey K (2007) Landings, effort and socio-economics of a small-scale commercial fishery in the Bahamas. Proceedings of the 60th Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute, 2007. p. 162–166.
[13]  Sumaila U, Cheung W, Lam V, Pauly D, Herrick S (2011) Climate change impacts on the biophysics and economics of world fisheries. Nature climate change 1: 449–456.
[14]  Ruddle K (1996) Geography and human ecology of reef fisheries. In: Polunin N, Roberts C, editors. Reef Fisheries. London: Chapman & Hall. 137–160.
[15]  Hughes S, Yau A, Max L, Petrovic N, Davenport F, et al. (2012) A framework to assess national level vulnerability from the perspective of food security: The case of coral reef fisheries. Environ Sci Policy 23: 95–108.
[16]  Cinner J, McClanahan T (2006) Socioeconomic factors that lead to overfishing in a small-scale coral reef fishery of Papua New Guinea. Environ Conserv 22: 1–8.
[17]  Dulvy N, Freckleton R, Polunin N (2004) Coral reef cascades and the indirect effects of predator removal by exploitation. Ecol Lett 7: 410–416.
[18]  Teh L, Teh L, Sumaila U (2011) Quantifying the overlooked socio-economic contribution of small-scale fisheries in Sabah, Malaysia. Fish Res 110: 450–458.
[19]  Cesar H, Burke L, Pet-Soede L (2003) The economics of worldwide coral reef degradation. Zeist, Netherlands: Cesar Environmental Economics Consulting. 23 p.
[20]  Donner S, Potere D (2007) The inequity of the global threat to coral reefs. Bioscience 57: 214–215.
[21]  Wabnitz C, Taylor M, Green A, Razak T (2003) From ocean to aquarium the global trade in marine ornamental species. Cambridge, U.K.: UNEP-WCMC. 64 p.
[22]  Sadovy Y, Donaldson T, Graham T, McGilvray F, Muldoon G, et al.. (2003) While stocks last: the live reef food fish trade. Manila: Asian Development Bank. 143 p.
[23]  McClanahan T, Cinner J, Maina J, Graham N, Daw T, et al. (2008) Conservation action in a changing climate. Curr Biol 1: 53–59.
[24]  Loper C, Pomeroy R, Hoon V, McConney P, Pena M, et al.. (2008) Conditions along the world's tropical coasts 2008. Silver Spring, MD: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network, Conservation International. 52 p.
[25]  Spalding M, Ravilious C, Green E (2001) World atlas of coral reefs Berkeley, USA: University of California Press.
[26]  United Nations (2012) Rural Population, Development and Environment 2011. Available: http://www.un.org/esa/population/publica?tions/2011RuralPopDevEnv_Chart/ruralpopd?evenv2011wallchart.html. Accessed 30 August 2012.
[27]  Wilkinson C (2008) (ed) Status of coral reefs of the world. Townsville, Australia: Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network and Reef and Rainforest Research Centre, 296 p.
[28]  Newton K, Cote I, Pilling G, Jennings S, Dulvy N (2007) Current and future sustainability of island coral reef fisheries. Curr Biol 17: 655–658.
[29]  Kronen M, Magron F, McArdle B, Vunisea A (2010) Reef finfishing pressure risk model for Pacific Island countries and territories. Fish Res 101: 1–10.
[30]  Teh LSL, Zeller D, Cabanban A, Teh LCL, Sumaila UR (2007) Seasonality and historic trends in the reef fisheries of Pulau Banggi, Sabah, Malaysia. Coral Reefs 26: 251–263.
[31]  Purcell S, Mercier A, Conand C, Hamel J, Toral-Granda M, et al.. (2011) Sea cucumber fisheries: global analysis of stocks, management measures and drivers of overfishing. Fish Fish DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-2979.2011.00443.x.
[32]  Teh L, Sumaila U (2011) Contribution of marine fisheries to worldwide employment. Fish Res DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-2979.2011.00450.x.
[33]  Zeller D, Booth S, Craig P, Pauly D (2006) Reconstruction of coral reef fisheries catches in American Samoa, 1950–2002. Coral Reefs 25: 144–152.
[34]  Sumaila UR, Marsden D, Watson R, Pauly D (2007) A global ex-vessel fish price database: construction and applications. J Bioecon 9: 39–51.
[35]  Dalzell P (1996) Catch rates, selectivity and yields of reef fishing. In: Polunin N, Roberts C, editors. Reef Fisheries. London: Chapman and Hall. 161–192.
[36]  Tun K, Chou L, Cabanban A, Tuan V, Yeemin T, et al.. (2004) Status of Coral Reefs, Coral Reef Monitoring and Management in Southeast Asia, 2004. In: Wilkinson C, editor. Status of coral reefs of the world: 2004. Townsville: Australian Institute of Marine Science. 235–276.
[37]  Hawkins J, Roberts C (2004) Effects of artisanal fishing on Caribbean coral reefs. Conserv Biol 18: 215–226.
[38]  Jennings S, Polunin N (1996) Effects of fishing effort and catch rate upon the structure and biomass of Fijian reef fish communities. J Appl Ecol 33: 400–412.
[39]  Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), Columbia University, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), The World Bank, (CIAT) CIdAT (2004) Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1). Palisades, NY: Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC). Columbia University.
[40]  United Nations (2011) World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision. New York.
[41]  Burke L, Maidens J (2004) Reefs at risk in the Caribbean. Washington DC: World Resources Institute. 80 p.
[42]  Arrivillaga A, Garcia M (2004) Status of coral reefs of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef systems project region, and reefs of El Salvador, Nicaragua and the Pacific coasts of Mesoamerica. In: Wilkinson C, editor. Status of coral reefs of the world 2004. Townsville: Australian Institute of Marine Science. 473–492.
[43]  Muallil R, Cabral R, Mamauag S, Ali?o P (2012) Status, trend and sustainability of small-scale fisheries in the Philippines. In: Yellowlees D, Hughes T, editors. 12th International Coral Reef Symposium 9–13 July 2012, Cairns, Australia, 2012.
[44]  Kronen M, Boblin P, Friedman K, Pinca S, Magron F, et al.. (2009) New Caledonia country report: Profile and results from survey work at Ouassé, Thio, Luengoni, Oundjo and Moindou (March, April and November 2003; January, February, April, June, August and November 2004; April and May 2005; January to March 2006; and January and February 2007). Noumea: Pacific Regional Oceanic and Coastal Fisheries Development Programme (PROCFish/C/CoFish)/Secretariat of the Pacific Community. 409 p.
[45]  Kronen M, Tardy E, Boblin P, Chapman L, Lasi F, et al.. (2009) Wallis et Futuna - Rapport de Pays : profils et résultats des enquêtes réalisées à Vailala, Halalo, Leava et Vele (ao?t - décembre 2005 et mars 2006). Noumea: Pacific Regional Oceanic and Coastal Fisheries Development Programme (PROCFish/C/CoFish)/Secretariat of the Pacific Community. 346 p.
[46]  Sauni S, Kronen M, Pinca S, Sauni L, Friedman K, et al.. (2008) Tuvalu country report: profile and reports from in-country survey work (Oct-Nov 2004 and March-April 2005). Noumea: Secretariat of the Pacific Community. 311 p.
[47]  Pinca S, Tardy E, Ribanataake A, Kronen M, Pakoa K, et al.. (2009) Marshall Islands country report: profiles and results from survey work at Likiep, Ailuk, Arno and Laura (August and September 2007). Noumea: Pacific Regional Oceanic and Coastal Fisheries Development Programme (PROCFish/C/CoFish)/Secretariat of the Pacific Community. 337 p.
[48]  Pinca S, Ribanataake A, Kronen M, Chapman L, Lasi F, et al.. (2009) Cook Islands country report: Profiles and results from survey work at Aitutaki, Palmerston, Mangaia and Rarotonga (February and October 2007). Noumea: Pacific Regional Oceanic and Coastal Fisheries Development Programme (PROCFish/C/CoFish)/Secretariat of the Pacific Community. 339 p.
[49]  Kronen M, Friedman K, Pinca S, Chapman L, Awira R, et al.. (2008) French Polynesia country report: Profiles and results from survey work at Fakarava, Maatea, Mataiea, Raivavae and Tikehau (September - October 2003, January - March 2004, April - June 2006). Noumea: Pacific Regional Oceanic and Coastal Fisheries Development Programme (PROCFish/C/CoFish)/Secretariat of the Pacific Community. 383 p.
[50]  McClanahan T, Arthur R (2001) The effect of marine reserves and habitats on populations of East African coral reef fishes. Ecol Appl 11: 559–569.
[51]  Gillett R (2011) Fisheries of the Pacific Islands: Regional and national information. RAP Publication 2011/03. Bangkok, Thailand: FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific. 279 p.
[52]  Starkhouse B (2009) What's the catch: Uncovering the catch volume and value of Fiji's coral reef-based artisanal and subsistence fisheries. Vancouver: University of British Columbia. 111 p.
[53]  WWF (2012) Problems in the Coral Triangle. Available: http://wwf.panda.org/what_we_do/where_we?_work/coraltriangle/problems/. Accessed 15 August 2012.
[54]  National CTI Coordinating Committee of Timor-Leste (2012) State of the Coral Reefs of Timor Leste. Available: http://www.coraltriangleinitiative.net. Accessed 20 August 2012.
[55]  Munday P (2000) The status of coral reefs in Papua New Guinea. Townsville: Australian Institute of Marine Science. 91 p.
[56]  Béné C (2003) When fishery rhymes with poverty: a first step beyond the old paradigm on poverty in small-scale fisheries. World Dev 31: 949–975.
[57]  Pauly D (1997) Small-scale fisheries in the tropics: marginality, marginalization, and some implications for fisheries management. In: Pikitch E, Huppert D, Sissenwine M, editors. Global Trends: Fisheries Management. Bethesda: American Fisheries Society. 40–49.
[58]  Pauly D, Chua T (1988) The overfishing of marine resources: socioeconomic background in Southeast Asia. Ambio 17: 200–206.
[59]  Teh L, Sumaila UR (2007) Malthusian overfishing in Pulau Banggi? Mar Policy 31: 451–457.
[60]  Bell J, Ratner B, Stobutzki I, Oliver J (2006) Addressing the coral reef crisis in developing countries. Ocean Coast Manage 49: 976–985.
[61]  Chapman M (1987) Women's fishing in Oceania. Hum Ecol 15: 267–288.
[62]  McClanahan T, Cinner J, Graham N, Daw T, Maina J, et al. (2009) Identifying reefs of hope and hopeful actions: contextualizing environmental, ecological, and social parameters to respond effectively to climate change. Conserv Biol 23: 662–671.
[63]  Cinner J, Marnane M, McClanahan T, Almany G (2006) Periodic closures as adaptive coral reef management in the Indo-Pacific. Ecol Soc 11: 31.
[64]  Kronen M, Vunisea A, Magron F, McArdle B (2010) Socio-economic drivers and indicators for artisanal coastal fisheries in Pacific island countries and territories and their use for fisheries management strategies. Mar Policy 34: 1135–1143.
[65]  Gonzalez J, Montes C, Rodriguez J, Tapia W (2008) Rethinking the Galapagos Islands as a Complex Social-Ecological System: Implications for Conservation and Management. Ecol Soc 13: 13.

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus