All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

PLOS ONE  2013 

Do Major Roads Reduce Gene Flow in Urban Bird Populations?

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077026

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

Background Although the negative effects of roads on the genetics of animal populations have been extensively reported, the question of whether roads reduce gene flow in volant, urban bird populations has so far not been addressed. In this study, we assess whether highways decreased gene flow and genetic variation in a small passerine bird, the tree sparrow (Passer montanus). Methodology We assessed genetic differences among tree sparrows (Passer montanus) sampled at 19 sites within Beijing Municipality, China, using 7 DNA microsatellites as genetic markers. Results AMOVA showed that genetic variation between sites, between urban and rural populations, and between opposite sides of the same highway, were very weak. Mantel tests on all samples, and on urban samples only, indicated that the age and number of highways, and the number of ordinary roads, were uncorrelated with genetic differences (FST) among tree sparrows from different urban sites. Birds sampled at urban sites had similar levels of genetic diversity to those at rural sites. There was, however, evidence of some weak genetic structure between urban sites. Firstly, there were significant genetic differences (FST) between birds from opposite sides of the same highway, but no significant FST values between those from sites that were not separated by highways. Secondly, birds from eleven urban sites had loci that significantly deviated from the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium but no such deviation was found in birds from rural sites. Conclusion We cannot, therefore, conclusively reject the hypothesis that highways have no effect on the gene flow of tree sparrow populations. Furthermore, since the significance of these results may increase with time, we suggested that research on the influence of highways on gene flow in urban bird populations needs to be conducted over several decades.

References

[1]  Forman RTT, Alexander LE (1998) Roads and their major ecological effects. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 29: 207–231.
[2]  Andrews A (1990) Fragmentation of habitat by roads and utility corridors: a review. Austral Zool 26: 130–141.
[3]  Spellerberg IF (1998) Ecological effects of roads and traffic: a literature review. Global Ecol Biogeogr 7: 317–333.
[4]  Trombulak SC, Frissell CA (2000) Review of ecological effects of roads on terrestrial and aquatic communities. Conserv Biol 14: 18–30.
[5]  Forman RTT, Sperling D, Bissonette JA, Clavenger AP, Cutshall CD, et al.. (2003) Road ecology. Island Press, Washington, DC.
[6]  Balkenhol N, Waits LP (2009) Molecular road ecology: exploring the potential of genetics for investigating transportation impacts on wildlife. Mol Ecol 18: 4151–4164.
[7]  Corlatti L, Hackl?nder K, Frey-Roos F (2009) Ability of wildlife overpasses to provide connectivity and prevent genetic isolation. Conser Biol 23: 548–556.
[8]  Holderegger R, Giulio MD (2010) The genetic effects of roads: a review of empirical evidence. Basic Appl Ecol 11: 522–531.
[9]  Frankham R (1996) Relationship of genetic variation to population size in wildlife. Conserv Biol 10: 1500–1508.
[10]  Frankham R (2005) Genetics and extinction. Biol Conserv 126: 131–140.
[11]  Saccheri I, Kuussaari M, Kankare M, Vikman P, Fortelius W, et al. (1998) Inbreeding and extinction in a butterfly metapopulation. Nature 392: 491–494.
[12]  Keller I, Largiadèr CR (2003) Recent habitat fragmentation caused by major roads leads to reduction of gene flow and loss of genetic variability in ground beetles. P Roy Soc B 270: 417–423.
[13]  Epps CW, Palsb?ll PJ, Wehausen JD, Roderick GK, Ramey RR, et al. (2005) Highways block gene flow and cause a rapid decline in genetic diversity of desert bighorn sheep. Ecol Lett 8: 1029–1038.
[14]  Johansson M, Primmer CR, Sahlsten J, Meril? J (2005) The influence of landscape structure on occurrence, abundance and genetic diversity of the common frog, Rana temporaria. Global Change Biol 11: 1664–1679.
[15]  Roedenbeck IA, Voser P (2008) Effects of roads onspatial distribution, abundance and mortality of brown hare (Lepus europaeus) in Switzerland. Eur J Wildlife Res 54: 425–437.
[16]  Clevenger AP, Waltho N (2001) Factors influencing the effectiveness of wildlife underpasses in Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada. Conserv Biol 14: 47–56.
[17]  Jaarsma CF, Langeveld F, Botma H (2006) Flattened fauna and mitigation: traffic victims related to road, traffic, vehicle, and species characteristics. Transport Res D 11: 264–276.
[18]  Van der Zande AN, TerKeurs WJ, van der Weijden WJ (1980) The impact of roads on the densities of four bird species in an open field habitat–evidence of a longdistance effect. Biol Conserv 18: 299–321.
[19]  Reijnen R, Foppen R, Ter Braak C, Thissen J (1995) The effects of car traffic on breeding bird populations in woodland. III. Reduction of density in relation to the proximity of main roads. J Appl Ecol 32: 187–202.
[20]  Dyer SJ, O'Neill JP, Wasel SM, Boutin S (2001) Avoidance of industrial development by woodland caribou. J Wildlife Manage 65: 531–542.
[21]  Rheindt FE (2003) The impact of roads on birds: does song frequency play a role in determining susceptibility to noise pollution? Journal für Ornithologie 144: 295–306.
[22]  Gagnon JW, Theimer TC, Dodd NL, Boe S, Schweinsburg RE (2007) Traffic volume alters elk distribution and highway crossings in Arizona. J Wildlife 71: 2318–2323.
[23]  Brotons L, Herrando S (2001) Reduced bird occurrence in pine forest fragments associated with road proximity in a Mediterranean agricultural area. Landscape Urban Plan 57: 77–89.
[24]  Zhang S, Zheng G (2010) Effect of urbanization on the abundance and distribution of tree sparrows (Passer montanus) in Beijing. Chin Birds 1: 188–197.
[25]  Ruan X, Zheng G (1991) Breeding ecology of the Tree Sparrow (Passer montanus) in Beijing. In: Pinowski J, Kavanagh B, Gorski W(ed) Nestling mortality of granivorous birds due to microorganisms and toxic substances. PWN, Warsaw, pp 99–109.
[26]  Pan C, Zheng G (2003) A study on home range of tree sparrow Passer montanus in Beijing in winter. J Beijing Normal University 39: 537–540.
[27]  Field RH, Anderso G (2004) Habitat use by breeding tree sparrows Passer montanus. Ibis 146(Suppl. 2): 60–68.
[28]  Parteck J, Schwabl I, Gwinner E (2006) Stress and the city: urbanization and its effects on the stress physiology in european blackbirds. Ecology 87: 1945–1952.
[29]  Yang C, Stokke BG, Antonov A, Cai Y, Shi S, et al. (2013) Host selection in parasitic birds: are open-cup nesting insectivorous passerines always suitable cuckoo hosts? J Avian Biol 44: 216–220.
[30]  Kilkenny C, Browne WJ, Cuthill IC, Emerson M, Altman DG (2010) Improving bioscience research reporting: The ARRIVE guidelines for reporting animal research. PLoS Biol 8: e1000412.
[31]  Griffith SI, Stewart RK, Dawson D, Owens PF, Burke T (1999) Contrasting levels of extra-pair paternity in mainland and island populations of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus): is there an “island effect”? Biol J Linn Soc 68: 303–316.
[32]  Excoffier L, Smouse PE, Quattro JM (1992) Analysis of molecular variance inferred from metric distances among DNA haplotypes: application to human mitochondrial DNA restriction data. Genetics 131: 479–491.
[33]  Guo SW, Thompson E (1992) Performing the exact test of Hardy–Weinberg proportion for multiple alleles. Biometrics 48: 361–372.
[34]  Rice WR (1989) Analyzing tables of statistical tests. Evolution 43: 223–225.
[35]  Slatkin M, Excoffier L (1996) Testing for linkage disequilibrium in genotypic data using the EM algorithm. Heredity 76: 377–383.
[36]  Kalinowski ST (2005) HP-rare 1.0: a computer program for performing rarefaction on measures of allelic richness. Mol Ecol Notes 5: 187–189.
[37]  Gauffre B, Estoup A, Bretanolle V, Cosson JF (2008) Spatial genetic structure of a small rodent in a heterogeneous landscape. Mol Ecol 17: 4619–4629.
[38]  Zhang S, Zheng G, Xu J (2008) Habitat use of urban tree sparrows in the process of urbanization. Frontier Biology of China 3: 122–128.
[39]  Barton NH, Wilson I (1995) Genealogies and geography. Philos T R Soc B 349: 49–59.
[40]  Murphy MA, Evans JS, Cushman SA, Storfer A (2008) Representing genetic variation as continuous surfaces: an approach for identifying spatial dependency in landscape genetic studies. Ecography 31: 685–697.
[41]  Summers-Smith JD (1995) The tree sparrow. The Bath Press, Bath.

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus