All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

PLOS ONE  2013 

Depression-Related Work Disability: Socioeconomic Inequalities in Onset, Duration and Recurrence

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079855

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

Objective Depression is a major cause of disability in working populations and the reduction of socioeconomic inequalities in disability is an important public health challenge. We examined work disability due to depression with four indicators of socioeconomic status. Methods A prospective cohort study of 125 355 Finnish public sector employees was linked to national register data on work disability (>9 days) due to depressive disorders (International Classification of Diseases, codes F32–F34) from January 2005 to December 2011. Primary outcomes were the onset of work disability due to depressive disorders and, among those with such disability, return to work after and recurrent episodes of work disability due to depression. Results We found a consistent inverse socioeconomic gradient in work disability due to depression. Lower occupational position, lower educational level, smaller residence size, and rented (vs. owner-occupied) residence were all associated with an increased risk of work disability. Return to work was slower for employees with basic education (cumulative odds ratio = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.05–1.39) compared to those with higher education. Recurrent work disability episodes due to depression were less common among upper-grade non-manual workers (the highest occupational group) than among lower-grade non-manual (hazard ratio = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.07–1.25) and manual (hazard ratio = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.02–1.26) workers. Conclusions These data from Finnish public sector employees show persistent socioeconomic inequalities in work disability due to depression from 2005 to 2011 in terms of onset, recovery and recurrence.

References

[1]  Adler DA, McLaughlin TJ, Rogers WH, Chang H, Lapitsky L, et al. (2006) Job performance deficits due to depression. Am J Psychiatry 163: 1569–76.
[2]  Eaton WW, Martins SS, Nestadt G, Bienvenu OJ, Clarke D, et al. (2008) The burden of mental disorders. Epidemiol Rev 30: 1–14.
[3]  The WHO World Mental Health Survey Consortium (2004) Prevalence, severity, and unmet need for treatment of mental disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys. JAMA 291: 2581–90.
[4]  Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. GBD arrow diagram. Available: http://www.healthmetricsandevaluation.or?g/gbd/visualizations/gbd-arrow-diagram. Accessed 2013 Apr 11.
[5]  Duncan GJ, Daly MC, McDonough P, Williams DR (2002) Optimal indicators of socioeconomic status for health research. Am J Public Health 92: 1151–7.
[6]  Lorant V, Deliége D, Eaton W, Robert A, Philippot P, et al. (2003) Socioeconomic inequalities in depression: A meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol 157: 98–112.
[7]  Pulkki-R?back L, Ahola K, Elovainio M, Kivim?ki M, Hintsanen M, et al. (2011) Socio-economic position and mental disorders in a working-age Finnish population: the health 2000 study. Eur J Public Health 22: 327–32.
[8]  Virtanen M, Koskinen S, Kivim?ki M, Honkonen T, Vahtera J, et al. (2008) Contribution of non-work and work-related risk factors to the association between income and mental disorders in a working population: the Health 2000 Study. Occup Environ Med 65: 171–8.
[9]  Virtanen M, Kawachi I, Oksanen T, Salo P, Tuisku K, et al. (2011) Socio-economic differences in long-term psychiatric work disability: prospective cohort study of onset, recovery and recurrence. Occup Environ Med 68: 791–8.
[10]  Nieuwenhuijsen K, Verbeek JH, de Boer AGEM, Blonk RWB, van Dijk FJH (2006) Predicting the duration of sickness absence for patients with common mental disorders in occupational health care. Scand J Work Environ Health 32: 67–74.
[11]  Roelen CAM, Norder G, Koopmans PC, van Rhenen W, van der Klink JJL, et al. (2012) Employees sick-listed with mental disorders: Who returns to work and when? J Occup Rehabil 22: 409–17.
[12]  Hees HL, Koeter MWJ, Schene AH (2012) Predictors of long-term return to work and symptom remission in sick-listed patients with major depression. J Clin Psychiatry 73: e1048–55.
[13]  Nielsen MBD, Bültmann U, Madsen IEH, Martin M, Christensen U, et al. (2012) Health, work, and personal-related predictors of time to return to work among employees with mental health problems. Disabil Rehabil 34: 1311–6.
[14]  Hardeveld F, Spijker J, De Graaf R, Nolen WA, Beekman ATF (2010) Prevalence and predictors of recurrence of major depressive disorder in the adult population. Acta Psychiatr Scand 122: 184–91.
[15]  Jain FA, Hunter AM, Brooks JO, Leuchter AF (2013) Predictive socioeconomic and clinical profiles of antidepressant response and remission. Depress Anxiety doi:10.1002/da.22045.
[16]  Koopmans PC, Bültmann U, Roelen CAM, Hoedeman R, van der Klink JJL, et al. (2011) Recurrence of sickness absence due to common mental disorders. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 84: 193–201.
[17]  Kivim?ki M, Gimeno D, Ferrie JE, Batty D, Oksanen T, et al. (2009) Socioeconomic position, psychosocial work environment and cerebrovascular disease among women: the Finnish public sector study. Int J Epidemiol 38: 1265–71.
[18]  World Health Organization (1994) International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10). Geneva, Switzerland: WHO.
[19]  Statistics Finland (2001) Classification of Occupations. Helsinki: Statistics Finland.
[20]  Advisory Board of Official Statistics of Finland. Official Statistics of Finland [e-publication]. Available: http://www.stat.fi/meta/svt/index_en.htm?l. Accessed 2013 Mar 18.
[21]  Population Register Center. Population information system (2010) Available: http://www.vrk.fi/default.aspx?id=39.Accessed 2013 Apr 11.
[22]  Halonen JI, Vahtera J, Stansfeld S, Yli-Tuomi T, Salo P, et al. (2012) Associations between nighttime traffic noise and sleep: The Finnish Public Sector Study. Environ Health Perspect 120: 1391–6.
[23]  Moustgaard H, Joutsenniemi K, Sihvo S, Martikainen P (2013) Alcohol-related deaths and social factors in depression mortality: a register-based follow-up of depressed in-patients and antidepressant users in Finland. J Affect Disord 148: 278–85.
[24]  Huijts T, Eikemo TA, Skalická V (2010) Income-related health inequalities in the Nordic countries: examining the role of education, occupational class, and age. Soc Sci Med 71: 1964–72.
[25]  Hart JT (1971) Inverse care law. Lancet 1: 405–12.
[26]  Briffault X, Sapinho D, Villamaux M, Kovess V (2008) Factors associated with use of psychotherapy. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 43: 165–71.
[27]  Suoyrj? H, Hinkka K, Kivim?ki M, Klaukka T, Pentti J, et al. (2007) Allocation of rehabilitation measures provided by the Social Insurance Institution of Finland: a register linkage study. J Rehabil Med 39: 198–204.
[28]  Kivim?ki M, Gunnell D, Lawlor DA, Smith GD, Pentti J, et al. (2007) Social inequalities in antidepressant treatment and mortality: a longitudinal register study. Psychol Med 37: 373–82.
[29]  Jokela M, Batty D, Vahtera J, Elovainio M, Kivim?ki M (2013) Socioeconomic inequalities in common mental disorders and psychotherapy treatment in the UK between 1991 and 2009. Br J Psychiatry 202: 115–20.
[30]  Vlasveld MC, van der Feltz-Cornelis CM, Adér HJ, Anema JR, Hoedeman R, et al. (2013) Collaborative care for sick-listed workers with major depressive disorder: a randomized controlled trial from the Netherlands Depression Initiative aimed at return to work and depressive symptoms. Occup Environ Med 70: 223–30.
[31]  Karasek R, Theorell T (1990) Healthy work. Stress, productivity, and the reconstruction of working life- New York: Basic Books.
[32]  Bonde JPE (2008) Psychosocial factors at work and risk of depression: a systematic review of the epidemiological evidence. Occup Environ Med 65: 438–45.
[33]  Netterstr?m B, Conrad N, Bech P, Fink P, Olsen O, et al. (2008) The relation between work-related psychosocial factors and the development of depression. Epidemiol Rev 30: 118–32.
[34]  Ahola KA, Virtanen M, Honkonen T, Isomets? E, Aromaa A, et al. (2011) Common mental disorders and subsequent work disability: A population-based Health 2000 Study. J Affect Disord 134: 365–72.
[35]  Nieuwenhuijsen K, Noordik E, van Dijk FJH, van der Klink JJ (2012) Return to work perceptions and actual return to work in workers with common mental disorders. J Occup Rehabil doi:10.1007/s10926-012-9389-6.
[36]  Taimela S (2013) Randomized trials on return-to-work programmes for major depression. Occup Environ Med 70: 521–2.

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us

service@oalib.com

QQ:3279437679

微信:OALib Journal