All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

PLOS ONE  2012 

Obstruction of Photoinduced Electron Transfer from Excited Porphyrin to Graphene Oxide: A Fluorescence Turn-On Sensing Platform for Iron (III) Ions

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0050367

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

A comparative reaserch of the assembly of different porphyrin molecules on graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was carried out, respectively. Despite the cationic porphyrin molecules can be assembled onto the surfaces of graphene sheets, including GO and RGO, to form complexes through electrostatic and π-π stacking interactions, the more obvious fluorescence quenching and the larger red-shift of the Soret band of porphyrin molecule in RGO-bound states were observed than those in GO-bound states, due to the differenc of molecular flattening in degree. Further, more interesting finding was that the complexes formed between cationic porphyrin and GO, rather than RGO sheets, can facilitate the incorporation of iron (III) ions into the porphyrin moieties, due to the presence of the oxygen-contained groups at the basal plane of GO sheets served as auxiliary coordination units, which can high-efficiently obstruct the electron transfer from excited porphyrin to GO sheets and result in the occurrence of fluorescence restoration. Thus, a fluorescence sensing platform has been developed for iron (III) ions detection in this contribution by using the porphyrin/GO nanohybrids as an optical probe, and our present one exhibited rapid and sensitive responses and high selectivity toward iron (III) ions.

References

[1]  Li D, Kaner RB (2008) Graphene-based materials. Science 320: 1170–1171.
[2]  Dikin DA, Stankovich S, Zimney EJ, Piner RD, Dommett GHB, et al. (2007) Preparation and characterization of graphene oxide paper. Nature 448: 457–460.
[3]  Bunch SJ, van der Zande AM, Verbridge SS, Frank IW, Tanenbaum DM, et al. (2007) Electromechanical resonators from graphene sheets. Science 315: 490–493.
[4]  Geim AK, Novoselov KS (2007) The rise of graphene. Nat Mater 6: 183–191.
[5]  Xu YF, Liu ZB, Zhang XL, Wang Y, Tian JG, et al. (2009) A graphene hybrid material covalently functionalized with porphyrin: synthesis and optical limiting property. Adv Mater 21: 1275–1279.
[6]  Wan XJ, Huang Y, Chen YS (2012) Focusing on energy and optoelectronic applications: a journey for graphene and graphene oxide at large scale. Acc Chem Res 45: 598–607.
[7]  Zhang ZX, Huang HL, Yang XM, Zang L (2011) Tailoring electronic properties of graphene by π-π stacking with aromatic molecules. J Phys Chem Lett 2: 2897–2905.
[8]  Rao CNR, Sood AK, Voggu R, Subrahmanyam KS (2010) Some novel attributes of graphene. J Phys Chem Lett 1: 572–580.
[9]  Lu CH, Li J, Zhang XL, Zheng AX, Yang HH, et al. (2011) General approach for monitoring peptide-protein interactions based on graphene-peptide complex. Anal Chem 83: 7276–7282.
[10]  Lu CH, Yang HH, Zhu CL, Chen X, Chen GN (2009) A graphene platform for sensing biomolecules. Angew Chem, Int Ed 48: 4785–4787.
[11]  He SJ, Song B, Li D, Zhu CF, Qi WP, et al. (2009) A graphene nanoprobe for rapid, sensitive, and multicolor fluorescent DNA analysis. Adv Funct Mater 20: 453–459.
[12]  Chang HX, Tang LH, Wang Y, Jiang JH, Li JH (2010) Graphene fluorescence resonance energy transfer aptasensor for the thrombin detection. Anal Chem 82: 2341–2346.
[13]  Hasobe T, Imahori H, Fukuzumi S, Kamat PV (2003) Light energy conversion using mixed molecular nanoclusters: porphyrin and C60 cluster films for efficient photocurrent generation. J Phys Chem B 107: 12105–12112.
[14]  Hasobe T, Kamat PV, Troiani V, Solladie N, Ahn TK, et al. (2005) Enhancement of light-energy conversion efficiency by multi-porphyrin arrays of porphyrin-peptide oligomers with fullerene clusters. J Phys Chem B 109: 19–23.
[15]  Nakamura T, Ikemoto JY, Fujitsuka M, Araki Y, Ito O, et al. (2005) Control of photoinduced energy- and electron- transfer steps in zinc phorphyrin-oligothiophene-fullerene linked triads with solvent polarity. J Phys Chem B 109: 14365–14374.
[16]  Baskaran D, Mays JW, Zhang XP, Bratcher MS (2005) Carbon nanotubes with covalently linked porphyrin antennae: photoinduced electron transfer. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127: 6916–6917.
[17]  Hasobe T, Fukuzumi S, Kamat PV (2006) Organized assemblies of single wall carbon nanotubes and porphyrin for photochemical solar cell: charge injection from excited porphyrin into single-walled carbon nanotubes. J Phys Chem B 110: 25477–25484.
[18]  Campidelli S, Sooambar C, Diz EL, Ehli C, Guldi DM, et al. (2006) Dendrimer-functionalized single-wall carbon nanotubes: synthesis, characterization, and photoinduced electron transfer. J Am Chem Soc 128: 12544–12552.
[19]  Sandanayaka ASD, Chitta R, Subbaiyan NK, Souza LD, Ito O, et al. (2009) Photoinduced charge separation in ion-paired porphyrin-single-wall carbon nanotube donor-acceptor hybrids. J Phys Chem C 113: 13425–13432.
[20]  Xu YX, Zhao L, Bai H, Hong WJ, Li C, et al. (2009) Chemically converted graphene induced molecular flattening of 5, 10, 15, 20-tetrakis(1-methyl-4-pyridinio)porphyr?inand its applocation for optical detection of cadmium (II) ions. J Am Chem Soc 131: 13490–13497.
[21]  Wojcik A, Kamat PV (2010) Reduced graphene oxide and porphyrin: an interactive affair in 2-D. ACS Nano 4: 6697–6706.
[22]  Geng JX, Jung HT (2010) Porphyrin functionalized graphene sheets in aqueous suspensions: from the preparation of graphene sheets to highly conductive graphene films. J Phys Chem C 114: 8227–8234.
[23]  Hayashi H, Lightcap IV, Tsujimoto M, Takano M, Umeyama T, et al. (2011) Electron transfer cascade by organic/inorganic ternary composites of porphyrin, zinc oxide nanoparticles, and reduced graphene oxide on a tin oxide electrode that exhibits efficient photocurrent generation. J Am Chem Soc 133: 7684–7687.
[24]  Hummers WS, Offeman RE (1958) Preparation of graphitic oxide. J Am Chem Soc 80: 1339.
[25]  Xu YX, Bai H, Lu GW, Li C, Shi GQ (2008) Flexible graphene films via the filtration of water-soluble noncovalent functionalized graphene sheets. J Am Chem Soc 130: 5856–5857.
[26]  Li D, Muller MB, Gilje S, Kaner RB, Wallace GG (2008) Processable aqueous dispersions of graphene nanosheets. Nat Nanotechnol 3: 101–105.
[27]  Vergeldt FJ, Koehorst RBM, Vanhoek A, Schaafsma TJ (1995) Intramolecular interactions in the ground and excited state of tetrakis(N-methylpyridyl)porphyrin. J Phys Chem 99: 4397–4405.
[28]  Schniepp HC, Li JL, McAllister MJ, Sai H, Herrera-Alonso M, et al. (2006) Functionalized single graphene sheets derived from splitting graphite oxide. J Phys Chem B 110: 8535–8539.
[29]  Biesaga M, Pyrzynska K, Trojanowicz M (2000) Porphyrin in analytical chemistry: a review. Talanta 51: 209–224.
[30]  Kawamura K, Igarashi S, Yotsuyanagi T (2006) Acceleration of metal ion incorporation into cationic porphyrin by 5-sulfo-8-quinolinol, and spectrophotometric determination of nickel (II). Microchim Acta 153: 145–150.
[31]  Yamashita T, Hayes P (2008) Analysis of XPS spectra of Fe2+ ans Fe3+ ions in oxide materials. Appl Surf Sci 254: 2441–2449.
[32]  Li XQ, Zhang WX (2007) Sequestration of metal cations with zerovalent iron nanoparticles: a study with high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HR-XPS). J Phys Chem C, 111: 6939–6946.

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus