All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

PLOS Genetics  2013 

Continent-Wide Decoupling of Y-Chromosomal Genetic Variation from Language and Geography in Native South Americans

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003460

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


Numerous studies of human populations in Europe and Asia have revealed a concordance between their extant genetic structure and the prevailing regional pattern of geography and language. For native South Americans, however, such evidence has been lacking so far. Therefore, we examined the relationship between Y-chromosomal genotype on the one hand, and male geographic origin and linguistic affiliation on the other, in the largest study of South American natives to date in terms of sampled individuals and populations. A total of 1,011 individuals, representing 50 tribal populations from 81 settlements, were genotyped for up to 17 short tandem repeat (STR) markers and 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs), the latter resolving phylogenetic lineages Q and C. Virtually no structure became apparent for the extant Y-chromosomal genetic variation of South American males that could sensibly be related to their inter-tribal geographic and linguistic relationships. This continent-wide decoupling is consistent with a rapid peopling of the continent followed by long periods of isolation in small groups. Furthermore, for the first time, we identified a distinct geographical cluster of Y-SNP lineages C-M217 (C3*) in South America. Such haplotypes are virtually absent from North and Central America, but occur at high frequency in Asia. Together with the locally confined Y-STR autocorrelation observed in our study as a whole, the available data therefore suggest a late introduction of C3* into South America no more than 6,000 years ago, perhaps via coastal or trans-Pacific routes. Extensive simulations revealed that the observed lack of haplogroup C3* among extant North and Central American natives is only compatible with low levels of migration between the ancestor populations of C3* carriers and non-carriers. In summary, our data highlight the fact that a pronounced correlation between genetic and geographic/cultural structure can only be expected under very specific conditions, most of which are likely not to have been met by the ancestors of native South Americans.


[1]  Cavalli-Sforza LL (1997) Genes, peoples, and languages. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 94: 7719–7724. doi: 10.1073/pnas.94.15.7719
[2]  Comas D, Bosch E, Calafell F (2008) Human genetics and languages. Chichester: Wiley.
[3]  Jobling MA, Hurles ME, Tyler-Smith C (2004) Human Evolutionary Genetics: Origins, Peoples and Disease: Garland Publishing.
[4]  Barbujani G, Sokal RR (1990) Zones of sharp genetic change in Europe are also linguistic boundaries. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 87: 1816–1819. doi: 10.1073/pnas.87.5.1816
[5]  Lao O, Lu TT, Nothnagel M, Junge O, Freitag-Wolf S, et al. (2008) Correlation between genetic and geographic structure in Europe. Current biology : CB 18: 1241–1248. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2008.07.049
[6]  Novembre J, Johnson T, Bryc K, Kutalik Z, Boyko AR, et al. (2008) Genes mirror geography within Europe. Nature 456: 98–101. doi: 10.1038/nature07331
[7]  Roewer L, Croucher PJ, Willuweit S, Lu TT, Kayser M, et al. (2005) Signature of recent historical events in the European Y-chromosomal STR haplotype distribution. Human genetics 116: 279–291. doi: 10.1007/s00439-004-1201-z
[8]  Rosser ZH, Zerjal T, Hurles ME, Adojaan M, Alavantic D, et al. (2000) Y-chromosomal diversity in Europe is clinal and influenced primarily by geography, rather than by language. American journal of human genetics 67: 1526–1543. doi: 10.1086/316890
[9]  Kayser M, Lao O, Anslinger K, Augustin C, Bargel G, et al. (2005) Significant genetic differentiation between Poland and Germany follows present-day political borders, as revealed by Y-chromosome analysis. Human genetics 117: 428–443. doi: 10.1007/s00439-005-1333-9
[10]  Lahermo P, Sajantila A, Sistonen P, Lukka M, Aula P, et al. (1996) The genetic relationship between the Finns and the Finnish Saami (Lapps): analysis of nuclear DNA and mtDNA. Am J Hum Genet 58: 1309–1322.
[11]  Ploski R, Wozniak M, Pawlowski R, Monies DM, Branicki W, et al. (2002) Homogeneity and distinctiveness of Polish paternal lineages revealed by Y chromosome microsatellite haplotype analysis. Human genetics 110: 592–600. doi: 10.1007/s00439-002-0728-0
[12]  Perez-Lezaun A, Calafell F, Comas D, Mateu E, Bosch E, et al. (1999) Sex-specific migration patterns in Central Asian populations, revealed by analysis of Y-chromosome short tandem repeats and mtDNA. Am J Hum Genet 65: 208–219. doi: 10.1086/302451
[13]  Poloni ES, Semino O, Passarino G, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS, Dupanloup I, et al. (1997) Human genetic affinities for Y-chromosome P49a,f/TaqI haplotypes show strong correspondence with linguistics. Am J Hum Genet 61: 1015–1035. doi: 10.1086/301602
[14]  Kalaydjieva L, Calafell F, Jobling MA, Angelicheva D, de Knijff P, et al. (2001) Patterns of inter- and intra-group genetic diversity in the Vlax Roma as revealed by Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA lineages. European journal of human genetics : EJHG 9: 97–104. doi: 10.1038/sj.ejhg.5200597
[15]  Larmuseau MH, Vanoverbeke J, Gielis G, Vanderheyden N, Larmuseau HF, et al. (2012) In the name of the migrant father-Analysis of surname origins identifies genetic admixture events undetectable from genealogical records. Heredity 109: 90–95. doi: 10.1038/hdy.2012.17
[16]  Rodig H, Roewer L, Gross A, Richter T, de Knijff P, et al. (2008) Evaluation of haplotype discrimination capacity of 35 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat loci. Forensic science international 174: 182–188. doi: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2007.04.223
[17]  El-Sibai M, Platt DE, Haber M, Xue Y, Youhanna SC, et al. (2009) Geographical structure of the Y-chromosomal genetic landscape of the Levant: a coastal-inland contrast. Annals of human genetics 73: 568–581. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-1809.2009.00538.x
[18]  Haber M, Platt DE, Badro DA, Xue Y, El-Sibai M, et al. (2011) Influences of history, geography, and religion on genetic structure: the Maronites in Lebanon. European journal of human genetics : EJHG 19: 334–340. doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2010.177
[19]  Jin HJ, Tyler-Smith C, Kim W (2009) The peopling of Korea revealed by analyses of mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosomal markers. PLoS ONE 4: e4210 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004210.
[20]  Xue Y, Zerjal T, Bao W, Zhu S, Shu Q, et al. (2006) Male demography in East Asia: a north-south contrast in human population expansion times. Genetics 172: 2431–2439. doi: 10.1534/genetics.105.054270
[21]  de Filippo C, Barbieri C, Whitten M, Mpoloka SW, Gunnarsdottir ED, et al. (2011) Y-chromosomal variation in sub-Saharan Africa: insights into the history of Niger-Congo groups. Molecular biology and evolution 28: 1255–1269. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msq312
[22]  Wood ET, Stover DA, Ehret C, Destro-Bisol G, Spedini G, et al. (2005) Contrasting patterns of Y chromosome and mtDNA variation in Africa: evidence for sex-biased demographic processes. European journal of human genetics : EJHG 13: 867–876. doi: 10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201408
[23]  Hagelberg E, Kayser M, Nagy M, Roewer L, Zimdahl H, et al. (1999) Molecular genetic evidence for the human settlement of the Pacific: analysis of mitochondrial DNA, Y chromosome and HLA markers. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B, Biological sciences 354: 141–152. doi: 10.1098/rstb.1999.0367
[24]  Kayser M, Brauer S, Cordaux R, Casto A, Lao O, et al. (2006) Melanesian and Asian origins of Polynesians: mtDNA and Y chromosome gradients across the Pacific. Molecular biology and evolution 23: 2234–2244. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msl093
[25]  Kayser M, Brauer S, Weiss G, Schiefenhovel W, Underhill P, et al. (2003) Reduced Y-chromosome, but not mitochondrial DNA, diversity in human populations from West New Guinea. American journal of human genetics 72: 281–302. doi: 10.1086/346065
[26]  Kayser M, Choi Y, van Oven M, Mona S, Brauer S, et al. (2008) The impact of the Austronesian expansion: evidence from mtDNA and Y chromosome diversity in the Admiralty Islands of Melanesia. Molecular biology and evolution 25: 1362–1374. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msn078
[27]  Mona S, Tommaseo-Ponzetta M, Brauer S, Sudoyo H, Marzuki S, et al. (2007) Patterns of Y-chromosome diversity intersect with the Trans-New Guinea hypothesis. Molecular biology and evolution 24: 2546–2555. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msm187
[28]  Kayser M, Krawczak M, Excoffier L, Dieltjes P, Corach D, et al. (2001) An extensive analysis of Y-chromosomal microsatellite haplotypes in globally dispersed human populations. American journal of human genetics 68: 990–1018. doi: 10.1086/319510
[29]  Shi W, Ayub Q, Vermeulen M, Shao RG, Zuniga S, et al. (2010) A worldwide survey of human male demographic history based on Y-SNP and Y-STR data from the HGDP-CEPH populations. Molecular biology and evolution 27: 385–393. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msp243
[30]  Forster P, Renfrew C (2011) Evolution. Mother tongue and Y chromosomes. Science 333: 1390–1391. doi: 10.1126/science.1205331
[31]  Hurles ME, Veitia R, Arroyo E, Armenteros M, Bertranpetit J, et al. (1999) Recent male-mediated gene flow over a linguistic barrier in Iberia, suggested by analysis of a Y-chromosomal DNA polymorphism. Am J Hum Genet 65: 1437–1448. doi: 10.1086/302617
[32]  Bosch E, Calafell F, Gonzalez-Neira A, Flaiz C, Mateu E, et al. (2006) Paternal and maternal lineages in the Balkans show a homogeneous landscape over linguistic barriers, except for the isolated Aromuns. Ann Hum Genet 70: 459–487. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-1809.2005.00251.x
[33]  Goebel T, Waters MR, O'Rourke DH (2008) The late Pleistocene dispersal of modern humans in the Americas. Science 319: 1497–1502. doi: 10.1126/science.1153569
[34]  Greenberg JH (1987) Language in the Americas. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
[35]  Lanata JL, Martino L, Osella A, Garcia-Herbst A (2008) Demographic conditions necessary to colonize new spaces: the case for early human dispersal in the Americas. World Archaeology 40: 520–537. doi: 10.1080/00438240802452890
[36]  Rothhammer F, Silva C (1989) Peopling of Andean South America. American journal of physical anthropology 78: 403–410. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.1330780308
[37]  Waters MR, Stafford TW Jr, McDonald HG, Gustafson C, Rasmussen M, et al. (2011) Pre-Clovis mastodon hunting 13,800 years ago at the Manis site, Washington. Science 334: 351–353. doi: 10.1126/science.1207663
[38]  Dillehay TD, Ramirez C, Pino M, Collins MB, Rossen J, et al. (2008) Monte Verde: seaweed, food, medicine, and the peopling of South America. Science 320: 784–786. doi: 10.1126/science.1156533
[39]  Salzano FM, Callegari-Jacques SM (1988) South American Indians: A case study in evolution. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
[40]  Silverman H, Isbell WE (2008) Handbook of South American Archaeology. New York: Springer.
[41]  Balter M (2008) Archaeology. Ancient algae suggest sea route for first Americans. Science 320: 729. doi: 10.1126/science.320.5877.729
[42]  Kirk RL (1979) Genetic differentiation in Australia and its bearing on the origin of the first Americans. In: Laughlin WS, Harper AB, editors. The first Americans: Origins, affinities, and adaptations. Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer. pp. 211–237.
[43]  Estrada E, Meggers BJ, Evans C (1962) Possible Transpacific Contact on the Coast of Ecuador. Science 135: 371–372. doi: 10.1126/science.135.3501.371
[44]  Ruhlen M (1991) A Guide to the World Languages. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
[45]  Goddard I (1996) Languages. Handbook of North American Indians. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution.
[46]  Campbell L (1997) American Indian languages: the historical linguistics of Native America. New York: Oxford University Press.
[47]  Mithun M (1999) The languages of native North America. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
[48]  Bolnick DA, Shook BA, Campbell L, Goddard I (2004) Problematic use of Greenberg's linguistic classification of the Americas in studies of Native American genetic variation. American journal of human genetics 75: 519–522. doi: 10.1086/423452
[49]  Hunley KL, Cabana GS, Merriwether DA, Long JC (2007) A formal test of linguistic and genetic coevolution in native Central and South America. American journal of physical anthropology 132: 622–631. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.20542
[50]  Yang NN, Mazieres S, Bravi C, Ray N, Wang S, et al. (2010) Contrasting patterns of nuclear and mtDNA diversity in Native American populations. Annals of human genetics 74: 525–538. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-1809.2010.00608.x
[51]  Crawford MH (1998) The origins of Native Americans: Cambridge University Press.
[52]  Fagundes NJ, Kanitz R, Eckert R, Valls AC, Bogo MR, et al. (2008) Mitochondrial population genomics supports a single pre-Clovis origin with a coastal route for the peopling of the Americas. American journal of human genetics 82: 583–592. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2007.11.013
[53]  Kitchen A, Miyamoto MM, Mulligan CJ (2008) A three-stage colonization model for the peopling of the Americas. PLoS ONE 3: e1596 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001596.
[54]  Tamm E, Kivisild T, Reidla M, Metspalu M, Smith DG, et al. (2007) Beringian standstill and spread of Native American founders. PLoS ONE 2: e829 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000829.
[55]  Tarazona-Santos E, Carvalho-Silva DR, Pettener D, Luiselli D, De Stefano GF, et al. (2001) Genetic differentiation in South Amerindians is related to environmental and cultural diversity: evidence from the Y chromosome. American journal of human genetics 68: 1485–1496. doi: 10.1086/320601
[56]  Wang S, Lewis CM, Jakobsson M, Ramachandran S, Ray N, et al. (2007) Genetic variation and population structure in native Americans. PLoS Genet 3: e185 doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.0030185.
[57]  Bortolini MC, Salzano FM, Thomas MG, Stuart S, Nasanen SP, et al. (2003) Y-chromosome evidence for differing ancient demographic histories in the Americas. American journal of human genetics 73: 524–539. doi: 10.1086/377588
[58]  Heckenberger MJ, Kuikuro A, Kuikuro UT, Russell JC, Schmidt M, et al. (2003) Amazonia 1492: pristine forest or cultural parkland? Science 301: 1710–1714. doi: 10.1126/science.1086112
[59]  Lell JT, Sukernik RI, Starikovskaya YB, Su B, Jin L, et al. (2002) The dual origin and Siberian affinities of Native American Y chromosomes. American journal of human genetics 70: 192–206. doi: 10.1086/338457
[60]  Pena SD, Santos FR, Bianchi NO, Bravi CM, Carnese FR, et al. (1995) A major founder Y-chromosome haplotype in Amerindians. Nature genetics 11: 15–16. doi: 10.1038/ng0995-15
[61]  Underhill PA, Jin L, Zemans R, Oefner PJ, Cavalli-Sforza LL (1996) A pre-Columbian Y chromosome-specific transition and its implications for human evolutionary history. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93: 196–200. doi: 10.1073/pnas.93.1.196
[62]  Bailliet G, Ramallo V, Muzzio M, Garcia A, Santos MR, et al. (2009) Brief communication: Restricted geographic distribution for Y-Q* paragroup in South America. American journal of physical anthropology 140: 578–582. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.21133
[63]  Bisso-Machado R, Jota MS, Ramallo V, Paixao-Cortes VR, Lacerda DR, et al. (2011) Distribution of Y-chromosome Q lineages in Native Americans. American journal of human biology : the official journal of the Human Biology Council 23: 563–566. doi: 10.1002/ajhb.21173
[64]  Jota MS, Lacerda DR, Sandoval JR, Vieira PP, Santos-Lopes SS, et al. (2011) A new subhaplogroup of native American Y-Chromosomes from the Andes. American journal of physical anthropology 146: 553–559. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.21519
[65]  Karafet TM, Mendez FL, Meilerman MB, Underhill PA, Zegura SL, et al. (2008) New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree. Genome Res 18: 830–838. doi: 10.1101/gr.7172008
[66]  Zegura SL, Karafet TM, Zhivotovsky LA, Hammer MF (2004) High-resolution SNPs and microsatellite haplotypes point to a single, recent entry of Native American Y chromosomes into the Americas. Molecular biology and evolution 21: 164–175. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msh009
[67]  Schurr TG, Dulik MC, Owings AC, Zhadanov SI, Gaieski JB, et al. (2012) Clan, language, and migration history has shaped genetic diversity in Haida and Tlingit populations from Southeast Alaska. American journal of physical anthropology 148: 422–435. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.22068
[68]  Geppert M, Baeta M, Nunez C, Martinez-Jarreta B, Zweynert S, et al. (2011) Hierarchical Y-SNP assay to study the hidden diversity and phylogenetic relationship of native populations in South America. Forensic science international Genetics 5: 100–104. doi: 10.1016/j.fsigen.2010.08.016
[69]  Sandoval K, Moreno-Estrada A, Mendizabal I, Underhill PA, Lopez-Valenzuela M, et al. (2012) Y-chromosome diversity in Native Mexicans reveals continental transition of genetic structure in the Americas. Am J Phys Anthropol 148: 395–405. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.22062
[70]  Malyarchuk B, Derenko M, Denisova G, Wozniak M, Grzybowski T, et al. (2010) Phylogeography of the Y-chromosome haplogroup C in northern Eurasia. Annals of human genetics 74: 539–546. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-1809.2010.00601.x
[71]  Toscanini U, Gusmao L, Berardi G, Gomes V, Amorim A, et al. (2011) Male lineages in South American native groups: evidence of M19 traveling south. American journal of physical anthropology 146: 188–196. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.21562
[72]  Ruiz-Linares A, Ortiz-Barrientos D, Figueroa M, Mesa N, Munera JG, et al. (1999) Microsatellites provide evidence for Y chromosome diversity among the founders of the New World. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 96: 6312–6317. doi: 10.1073/pnas.96.11.6312
[73]  Kamp C, Hirschmann P, Voss H, Huellen K, Vogt PH (2000) Two long homologous retroviral sequence blocks in proximal Yq11 cause AZFa microdeletions as a result of intrachromosomal recombination events. Human molecular genetics 9: 2563–2572. doi: 10.1093/hmg/9.17.2563
[74]  Dulik MC, Owings AC, Gaieski JB, Vilar MG, Andre A, et al. (2012) Y-chromosome analysis reveals genetic divergence and new founding native lineages in Athapaskan- and Eskimoan-speaking populations. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109: 8471–8476. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1118760109
[75]  Hammer MF, Karafet TM, Park H, Omoto K, Harihara S, et al. (2006) Dual origins of the Japanese: common ground for hunter-gatherer and farmer Y chromosomes. Journal of human genetics 51: 47–58. doi: 10.1007/s10038-005-0322-0
[76]  Nonaka I, Minaguchi K, Takezaki N (2007) Y-chromosomal binary haplogroups in the Japanese population and their relationship to 16 Y-STR polymorphisms. Annals of human genetics 71: 480–495. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-1809.2006.00343.x
[77]  Tajima A, Hayami M, Tokunaga K, Juji T, Matsuo M, et al. (2004) Genetic origins of the Ainu inferred from combined DNA analyses of maternal and paternal lineages. Journal of human genetics 49: 187–193. doi: 10.1007/s10038-004-0131-x
[78]  Chang YM, Perumal R, Keat PY, Kuehn DL (2007) Haplotype diversity of 16 Y-chromosomal STRs in three main ethnic populations (Malays, Chinese and Indians) in Malaysia. Forensic science international 167: 70–76. doi: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2006.01.002
[79]  Cinnioglu C, King R, Kivisild T, Kalfoglu E, Atasoy S, et al. (2004) Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia. Human genetics 114: 127–148. doi: 10.1007/s00439-003-1031-4
[80]  Gayden T, Mirabal S, Cadenas AM, Lacau H, Simms TM, et al. (2009) Genetic insights into the origins of Tibeto-Burman populations in the Himalayas. Journal of human genetics 54: 216–223. doi: 10.1038/jhg.2009.14
[81]  Kim SH, Han MS, Kim W (2010) Y chromosome homogeneity in the Korean population. International journal of legal medicine 124: 653–657. doi: 10.1007/s00414-010-0501-1
[82]  Kim YJ, Shin DJ, Kim JM, Jin HJ, Kwak KD, et al. (2001) Y-chromosome STR haplotype profiling in the Korean population. Forensic science international 115: 231–237. doi: 10.1016/s0379-0738(00)00332-7
[83]  Kwak KD, Jin HJ, Shin DJ, Kim JM, Roewer L, et al. (2005) Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes and their applications to forensic and population studies in east Asia. International journal of legal medicine 119: 195–201. doi: 10.1007/s00414-004-0518-4
[84]  Yunusbayev B, Metspalu M, Jarve M, Kutuev I, Rootsi S, et al. (2012) The caucasus as an asymmetric semipermeable barrier to ancient human migrations. Molecular biology and evolution 29: 359–365. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msr221
[85]  Barbujani G (1997) DNA variation and language affinities. American journal of human genetics 61: 1011–1014. doi: 10.1086/301620
[86]  Fuselli S, Tarazona-Santos E, Dupanloup I, Soto A, Luiselli D, et al. (2003) Mitochondrial DNA diversity in South America and the genetic history of Andean highlanders. Molecular biology and evolution 20: 1682–1691. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msg188
[87]  Kohlrausch FB, Callegari-Jacques SM, Tsuneto LT, Petzl-Erler ML, Hill K, et al. (2005) Geography influences microsatellite polymorphism diversity in Amerindians. American journal of physical anthropology 126: 463–470. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.20042
[88]  Reich D, Patterson N, Campbell D, Tandon A, Mazieres S, et al. (2012) Reconstructing Native American population history. Nature 488: 370–374.
[89]  Beckerman S, Erickson PI, Yost J, Regalado J, Jaramillo L, et al. (2009) Life histories, blood revenge, and reproductive success among the Waorani of Ecuador. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106: 8134–8139. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0901431106
[90]  Schurr TG (2004) The peopling of the New World: Perspectives from molecular anthropology. Annu Rev Anthropol 33: 551–583. doi: 10.1146/annurev.anthro.33.070203.143932
[91]  Marino M, Sala A, Corach D (2007) Genetic attributes of the YHRD minimal haplotype in 10 provinces of Argentina. Forensic science international Genetics 1: 129–133. doi: 10.1016/j.fsigen.2007.01.013
[92]  Palha Tde J, Rodrigues EM, Dos Santos SE (2007) Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in a population from the Amazon region, Brazil. Forensic science international 166: 233–239. doi: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2005.12.012
[93]  Palha TJ, Rodrigues EM, dos Santos SE (2010) Y-STR haplotypes of Native American populations from the Brazilian Amazon region. Forensic science international Genetics 4: e121–123. doi: 10.1016/j.fsigen.2009.12.003
[94]  Gusmao L, Butler JM, Carracedo A, Gill P, Kayser M, et al. (2006) DNA Commission of the International Society of Forensic Genetics (ISFG): an update of the recommendations on the use of Y-STRs in forensic analysis. Forensic science international 157: 187–197. doi: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2005.04.002
[95]  Beleza S, Gusmao L, Lopes A, Alves C, Gomes I, et al. (2006) Micro-phylogeographic and demographic history of Portuguese male lineages. Annals of human genetics 70: 181–194. doi: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2005.00221.x
[96]  Zuccarelli G, Alechine E, Caputo M, Bobillo C, Corach D, et al. (2011) Rapid screening for Native American mitochondrial and Y-chromosome haplogroups detection in routine DNA analysis. Forensic science international Genetics 5: 105–108. doi: 10.1016/j.fsigen.2010.08.018
[97]  R Development Core Team (2011) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.
[98]  Nei M (1987) Molecular evolutionary genetics. New York: Columbia University Press.
[99]  Nei M, Tajima F (1981) DNA polymorphism detectable by restriction endonucleases. Genetics 97: 145–163.
[100]  Cramér H (1946) Mathematical Methods of Statistics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
[101]  Excoffier L, Smouse PE (1994) Using allele frequencies and geographic subdivision to reconstruct gene trees within a species: molecular variance parsimony. Genetics 136: 343–359.
[102]  Excoffier L, Smouse PE, Quattro JM (1992) Analysis of molecular variance inferred from metric distances among DNA haplotypes: application to human mitochondrial DNA restriction data. Genetics 131: 479–491.
[103]  Excoffier L, Lischer HE (2010) Arlequin suite ver 3.5: a new series of programs to perform population genetics analyses under Linux and Windows. Molecular ecology resources 10: 564–567. doi: 10.1111/j.1755-0998.2010.02847.x
[104]  Sokal RR, Oden NL (1978) Spatial autocorrelation in biology. 1. Methodology. Biol J Linn Soc 10: 199–228. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8312.1978.tb00013.x
[105]  Bandelt HJ, Forster P, Rohl A (1999) Median-joining networks for inferring intraspecific phylogenies. Molecular biology and evolution 16: 37–48. doi: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a026036
[106]  Wilson IJ, Weale ME, Balding DJ (2003) Inferences from DNA data: population histories, evolutionary processes and forensic match probabilities. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A 166: 155–188. doi: 10.1111/1467-985x.00264
[107]  Lopes JS, Balding D, Beaumont MA (2009) PopABC: a program to infer historical demographic parameters. Bioinformatics 25: 2747–2749. doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btp487


comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us


微信:OALib Journal