The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in bauxite ore, alumina, dross tailing, aluminium scraps and soil samples collected from an aluminium industry in Nigeria were determined by gamma ray spectroscopy method. The mean values of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K content of the samples ranged from 16 ± 6 (alumina) to 31 ± 10 (scrap), 41 ± 0.12 (scrap) to 134 ± 21(bauxite) and 47 ± 14 (bauxite) to 354 ± 8 (scrap) Bq·kg-1, respectively. The mean activity concentrations of 226Ra and 40K in all the samples are lower than the world average for soil while 232Th is higher with the exception of alumina and scrap. As a measure of radiation hazard to the occupational workers and the members of the public, the radium equivalent activities and external gamma dose rates due to the radionuclides at 1 m above ground surface were calculated. The radium equivalent activities which varied between 88 ± 10 (alumina) and 222 ± 34 (bauxite) Bq·kg-1 are within the safety recommended limit of 370 Bq·kg-1. The mean annual effective doses calculated from the absorbed dose
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