All Title Author
Keywords Abstract


Mechanisms of preventative and therapeutic role of probiotics in different allergic and autoimmune disorders

DOI: 10.4236/oji.2013.33015, PP. 103-118

Keywords: Probiotics, Allergic Disease, Autoimmune Disease, Atopic Dermatitis, Asthma

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

The prevalence of allergic and autoimmune diseases has been increasing from the last decades of 20th century. Intestinal microflora contributes to antigen exposure in early life and is one of the most abundant sources of early immune stimulation as well as adaptation. Because allergic and autoimmune responses manifest early in life, there has been obvious interest in the potential benefits of modifying the gastrointestinal flora by using probiotic supplementation. So far, there have been several studies to address the role of probiotics in primary prevention and therapy, with a reported suspicious reduction in the incidence of atopic and autoimmune diseases. Here, our aim is to evaluate the available knowledge of mechanisms of preventative and therapeutic role of probiotics in different allergic and autoimmune disorders. Promising mechanisms of probiotic effects may be categorized as local and systemic effects. Local influences of probiotics potentially include reduction of gut permeability and systemic penetration of antigens, increased local immunoglobulin A production, and alteration of local inflammation or tolerance induction. Some possible systemic effects consist of anti-inflammatory effects mediated by Th17 cells and Toll-like receptors, Th1 skewing of responses to allergens, activation of tolerogenic dendritic cells, in addition to T-regulatory cell production.

References

[1]  Bjorkstén, B., Sepp, E., Julge, K., et al. (2001) Allergy development and the intestinal microflora during the first year of life. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 108, 516-520. doi:10.1067/mai.2001.118130
[2]  Das, R.R. (2011) Cesarean delivery, antibiotic exposure, and probiotics: Relationship with childhood asthma. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 128, 1133-1134. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2011.07.043
[3]  Newburg, D.S. (2000) Oligosaccharides in human milk and bacterial colonization. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 30, S8-S17.
[4]  Matsuki, T., Watanabe, K., Tanaka, R., et al. (1999) Distribution of bifidobacterial species in human intestinal microflora examined with 16S rRNA-gene-targeted species-specific primers. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 65, 4506-4512.
[5]  Harmsen, H.J., Wildeboer-Veloo, A.C., Raangs, G.C., et al. (2000) Analysis of intestinal flora development in breast-fed and formula-fed infants by using molecular identification and detection methods. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 30, 61-67. doi:10.1097/00005176-200001000-00019
[6]  Yoshioka, H., Iseki, K. and Fujita, K. (1983) Development and differences of intestinal flora in the neonatal period in breast-fed and bottle-fed infants. Pediatrics, 72, 317-321.
[7]  Kalliomaki, M., Kirjavainen, P., Eerola, E., et al. (2001) Distinct patterns of neonatal gut microflora in infants in whom atopy was and was not developing. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 107, 129-134. doi:10.1067/mai.2001.111237
[8]  Kirjavainen, P.V., Arvola, T., Salminen, S.J. and Isolauri, E. (2002) Aberrant composition of gut microbiota of allergic infants: a target of bifidobacterial therapy at weaning? Gut, 51, 51-55. doi:10.1136/gut.51.1.51
[9]  Sepp, E., Julge, K., Mikelsaar, M. and Bj?rkstén, B. (2005) Intestinal microbiota and immunoglobulin E responses in 5-year-old Estonian children. Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 35, 1141-1146. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2222.2005.02315.x
[10]  Ozdemir,O. (2009) Gut flora development in infancy and its effect on immune system. Journal of Pediatric Infection, 3, 202-203.
[11]  Metchnikoff, E. (1907) The prolongation of life: Optimistic studies. G. P. Putnam & Sons, London.
[12]  Food and Agriculture Organization, World Health Organization (2001) Report of joint FAO/WHO expert consultation on evaluation of health and nutritional properties of probiotics in food including powder milk with live lactic acid bacteria. FAO/WHO Report, World Health Organization, 10-11.
[13]  Ozdemir, O. (2009) Any benefits of probiotics in allergic disorders? Allergy and Asthma Proceedings, 31, 103-111. doi:10.2500/aap.2010.31.3313
[14]  Cabana, M.D., McKean, M., Wong, A.R., et al. (2007) Examining the hygiene hypothesis: The Trial of infant probiotic supplementation. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 21, 23-28. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3016.2007.00881.x
[15]  Ljungberg, M., Korpela, R., Ilonen, J., et al. (2006) Probiotics for the prevention of beta cell autoimmunity in children at genetic risk of type 1 diabetes: The PRODIA study. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1079, 360-364. doi:10.1196/annals.1375.055
[16]  Vaarala, O, Atkinson, M.A. and Neu, J. (2008) The “Perfect Storm” for type 1 diabetes: The complex interplay between intestinal microbiota, gut permeability, and mucosal immunity. Diabetes, 57, 2555-2562. doi:10.2337/db08-0331
[17]  Bach, J.F. (2002) The effect of infections on susceptibility to autoimmune and allergic diseases. The New England Journal of Medicine, 347, 911-920. doi:10.1056/NEJMra020100
[18]  Petrovsky, N. (2010) Immunomodulation with microbial vaccines to prevent type 1 diabetes mellitus. Nature Reviews Endocrinology, 6, 131-138. doi:10.1038/nrendo.2009.273
[19]  Boerner, B.P. and Sarvetnick, N.E. (2011) Type 1 diabetes: role of intestinal microbiome in humans and mice. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1243, 103-118. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.06340.x
[20]  Prescott, S.L., Macaubas, C., Holt, B.J., et al. (1998) Transplacental priming of the human immune system to environmental allergens: universal skewing of initial T cell responses toward the Th2 cytokine profile. Journal of Immunology, 160, 4730-4737.
[21]  Schwartz, R.H. (2005) Natural regulatory T cells and self-tolerance. Nature Immunology, 6, 327-330. doi:10.1038/ni1184
[22]  Billmann-Born, S., Till, A., Arlt, A., et al. (2011) Genome- wide expression profiling identifies an impairment of negative feedback signals in the Crohn’s disease-associated NOD2 variant L1007fsinsC. Journal of Immunology, 186, 4027-4038. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1000085
[23]  Walsh, K.P., Brady, M.T., Finlay, C.M., et al. (2009) Infection with a helminth parasite attenuates autoimmunity through TGF-beta-mediated suppression of Th17 and Th1 responses. Journal of Immunology, 183, 1577-1586. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.0803803
[24]  Sgouroudis, E., Kornete, M. and Piccirillo, C.A. (2011) IL-2 production by dendritic cells promotes Foxp3(+) regulatory T-cell expansion in autoimmune-resistant NOD congenic mice. Autoimmunity, 44, 406-414. doi:10.3109/08916934.2010.536795
[25]  Okada, H., Kuhn, C., Feillet, H. and Bach, J.F. (2010) The “hygiene hypothesis” for autoimmune and allergic diseases: An update. Clinical & Experimental Immunology, 160, 1-9. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2249.2010.04139.x
[26]  Tlaskalová-Hogenová, H., Stepánková, R., Hudcovic, T., et al. (2004) Commensal bacteria (normal microflora), mucosal immunity and chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Immunology Letters, 93, 97-108. doi:10.1016/j.imlet.2004.02.005
[27]  Matsuzaki, T., Takagi, A., Ikemura, H., et al. (2007) Intestinal microflora: probiotics and autoimmunity. Journal of Nutrition, 137, 798S-802S.
[28]  Kubota, A., He, F., Kawase, M., et al. (2011) Diversity of intestinal bifidobacteria in patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis and possible influence of probiotic intervention. Current Microbiology, 62, 71-77. doi:10.1007/s00284-010-9667-5
[29]  Canche-Pool, E.B., Cortez-Gómez, R., Flores-Mejía, R., et al. (2008) Probiotics and autoimmunity: An evolutionary perspective. Medical Hypotheses, 70, 657-660. doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2007.07.008
[30]  de Kort, S., Keszthelyi, D. and Masclee, A.A. (2011) Leaky gut and diabetes mellitus: what is the link? Obesity Reviews, 12, 449-458. doi:10.1111/j.1467-789X.2010.00845.x
[31]  Kim, N.Y. and Ji, G.E. (2012) Effects of probiotics on the prevention of atopic dermatitis. Korean Journal of Pediatrics, 55, 193-201. doi:10.3345/kjp.2012.55.6.193
[32]  ?zdemir, ?. (2010) Various effects of different probiotic strains in allergic disorders: An update from laboratory and clinical data. Clinical & Experimental Immunology, 160, 295-304. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2249.2010.04109.x
[33]  Majamaa, H. and Isolauri, E. (1997) Probiotics. A novel approach in the management of food allergy. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 99, 179-185. doi:10.1016/S0091-6749(97)70093-9
[34]  Kalliom?ki, M., Salminen, S., Poussa, T. and Isolauri, E. (2007) Probiotics during the first 7 years of life: A cumulative risk reduction of eczema in a randomized, placebo- controlled trial. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 119, 1019-1021. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2006.12.608
[35]  Singh, B. and Rabinovitch, A. (1993) Influence of microbial agents on the development and prevention of autoimmune diabetes. Autoimmunity, 15, 209-213. doi:10.3109/08916939309019929
[36]  Brugman, S., Klatter, F.A., Visser, J.T., et al. (2006) Antibiotic treatment partially protects against type 1 diabetes in the bio-breeding diabetes-prone rat. Is the gut flora involved in the development of type 1diabetes? Diabetologia, 49, 2105-2108. doi:10.1007/s00125-006-0334-0
[37]  Sudo, N., Sawamura, S., Tanaka, K., et al. (1997) The requirement of intestinal bacterial flora for the development of an IgE production system fully susceptible to oral tolerance induction. The Journal of Immunology, 159, 1739-1745.
[38]  Miele, E., Pascarella, F., Giannetti, E., et al. (2009) Effect of a probiotic preparation (VSL#3) on induction and maintenance of remission in children with ulcerative colitis. The American Journal of Gastroenterology, 104, 437- 443. doi:10.1038/ajg.2008.118
[39]  Dotan, I. and Rachmilewitz, D. (2005) Probiotics in inflammatory bowel disease: Possible mechanisms of action. Current Opinion in Gastroenterology, 21, 426-430.
[40]  Sawada, J., Morita, H., Tanaka, A., et al. (2007) Ingestion of heat-treated Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG prevents development of atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice. Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 37, 296-303. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2222.2006.02645.x
[41]  Cebra, J.J. (1999) Influences of microbiota on intestinal immune system development. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 69, 1046S-1051S.
[42]  Sistek, D., Kelly, R., Wickens, K., et al. (2006) Is the effect of probiotics on atopic dermatitis confined to food sensitized children? Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 36, 629-633. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2222.2006.02485.x
[43]  Pessi, T., Isolauri, E., Sutas, Y., Kankaanranta, H., Moilanen, E. and Hurme, M. (2001) Suppression of T cell activation by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-degraded bovine casein. Immunopharmacology, 1, 211-218. doi:10.1016/S1567-5769(00)00018-7
[44]  Kaila, M., Isolauri, E., Soppi, E., et al. (1992) Enhancement of the circulating antibody secreting cell response in human diarrhea by a human Lactobacillus strain. Pediatric Research, 32, 141-144. doi:10.1203/00006450-199208000-00002
[45]  Isolauri, E., Sütas, Y., Kankaanp??, P., et al. (2001) Probiotics: Effects on immunity. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 73, 444S-450S.
[46]  Inoue, R., Nishio, A., Fukushima, Y. and Ushida, K. (2007) Oral treatment with probiotic Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC533 (La1) for a specific part of the weaning period prevents the development of atopic dermatitis induced after maturation in model mice, NC/Nga. British Journal of Dermatology, 156, 499-509. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2133.2006.07695.x
[47]  Salminen, S.J., Gueimonde, M. and Isolauri, E. (2005) Probiotics that modify disease risk. Journal of Nutrition, 135, 1294-1298.
[48]  Takahashi, N., Kitazawa, H., Iwabuchi, N., et al. (2006) Immunostimulatory oligodeoxynucleotide from Bifido- bacterium longum suppresses Th2 immune responses in a murine model. Clinical & Experimental Immunology, 145, 130-138. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2249.2006.03111.x
[49]  Braat, H., Van Den Brande, J., Van Tol, E., et al. (2004) Lactobacillus rhamnosus induces peripheral hyporesponsiveness in stimulated CD4+ T cells via modulation of dendritic cell function. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 80, 1618-1625.
[50]  Maassen, C.B., Van Holten-Neelen, C., Balk, F., et al. (2000) Strain-dependent induction of cytokine profiles in the gut by orally administered Lactobacillus strains. Vaccine, 18, 2613-2623. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(99)00378-3
[51]  Shida, K., Nanno, M., Nagata, S. (2011) Flexible cytokine production by macrophages and T cells in response to probiotic bacteria: A possible mechanism by which probiotics exert multifunctional immune regulatory activities. Gut Microbes, 2,109-114. doi:10.4161/gmic.2.2.15661
[52]  Niers, L.E., Timmerman, H.M., Rijkers, G.T., et al. (2005) Identification of strong interleukin-10 inducing lactic acid bacteria which downregulate T helper type 2 cytokines. Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 35, 1481-1489. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2222.2005.02375.x
[53]  Kruisselbrink, A., Heijne Den Bak-Glashouwer, M.J., Havenith, C.E., et al. (2001) Recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum inhibits house dust mite-specific T-cell responses. Clinical & Experimental Immunology, 126, 2-8. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2249.2001.01642.x
[54]  West, C.E., Hammarstr?m, M.L. and Hernell, O. (2009) Probiotics during weaning reduce the incidence of eczema. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, 20, 430-437. doi:10.1111/j.1399-3038.2009.00745.x
[55]  Kim, J.Y., Choi, Y.O. and Ji, G.E. (2008) Effect of oral probiotics (Bifidobacterium lactis AD011 and Lactobacillus acidophilus AD031) administration on ovalbumin-induced food allergy mouse model. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 18, 1393-1400.
[56]  Sunada, Y., Nakamura, S. and Kamei, C. (2008) Effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus strain L-55 on the development of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. International Immunopharmacology, 8, 1761-1766. doi:10.1016/j.intimp.2008.08.011
[57]  Shida, K., Makino, K. and Morishita, A. (1998) Lactobacillus casei inhibits antigen induced IgE secretion through regulation of cytokine production in murine splenocyte cultures. International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, 115, 278-287. doi:10.1159/000069458
[58]  Watanabe, T., Hamada, K., Tategaki, A., et al. (2009) Oral administration of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional South Asian fermented milk ‘dahi’ inhibits the development of atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, 55, 271-278. doi:10.3177/jnsv.55.271
[59]  Hayashi, A., Kimura, M., Nakamura, Y. and Yasui, H. (2009) Anti-atopic dermatitis effects and the mechanism of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Mongolian fermented milk. Journal of Dairy Research, 76, 158-164. doi:10.1017/S0022029908003725
[60]  Won, T.J., Kim, B, Lim, Y.T., et al. (2011) Oral administration of Lactobacillus strains from Kimchi inhibits atopic dermatitis in NC?/?Nga mice. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 110, 1195-1202. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2672.2011.04981.x
[61]  Ogawa, T., Hashikawa, S., Asai, Y., et al. (2006) A new synbiotic, Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei together with dextran, reduces murine and human allergic reaction. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, 46, 400- 409. doi:10.1111/j.1574-695X.2006.00046.x
[62]  Wakabayashi, H., Nariai, C., Takemura, F., et al. (2008) Dietary supplementation with lactic acid bacteria atenuates the development of atopic-dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice in a strain-dependent manner. International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, 145, 141-151. doi:10.1159/000108139
[63]  Segawa, S., Hayashi, A., Nakakita, Y., et al. (2008) Oral administration of heat-killed Lactobacillus brevis SBC8803 ameliorates the development of dermatitis and inhibits immunoglobulin E production in atopic dermatitis model NC/Nga mice. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 31, 884-889. doi:10.1248/bpb.31.884
[64]  Tanaka, A., Jung, K., Benyacoub, J., et al. (2009) Oral supplementation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus CGMCC 1.3724 prevents development of atopic dermatitis in NC/NgaTnd mice possibly by modulating local production of IFN-gamma. Experimental Dermatology, 18, 1022-1027. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0625.2009.00895.x
[65]  Thomas, D.J., Husmann, R.J., Villamar, M., et al. (2011) Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 attenuates allergy development in a pig model. PLoS ONE, 6, e16577. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0016577
[66]  Pohjavuori E, Viljanen M, Korpela R, et al. (2004) Lactobacillus GG effect in increasing IFN-gamma production in infants with cow’s milk allergy. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 114, 131-136. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2004.03.036
[67]  Prescott, S.L., Dunstan, J.A., Hale, J., et al. (2005) Clinical effects of probiotics are associated with increased interferon-gamma responses in very young children with atopic dermatitis. Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 35, 1557-1564. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2222.2005.02376.x
[68]  Rosenfeldt, V., Benfeldt, E., Nielsen, S.D., et al. (2003) Effect of probiotic Lactobacillus strains in children with atopic dermatitis. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 111, 389-395. doi:10.1067/mai.2003.389
[69]  Brouwer, M.L., Wolt-Plompen, S.A., Dubois, A.E., et al. (2006) No effects of probiotics on atopic dermatitis in infancy: A randomized placebo-controlled trial. Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 36, 899-906. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2222.2006.02513.x
[70]  Pessi, T., Sütas, Y., Hurme, M. and Isolauri, E. (2000) Interleukin-10 generation in atopic children following oral Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 30, 1804-1808. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2222.2000.00948.x
[71]  Betsi, G.I., Papadavid, E. and Falagas, M.E. (2008) Probiotics for the treatment or prevention of atopic dermatitis: A review of the evidence from randomized controlled trials. American Journal of Clinical Dermatology, 9, 93-103. doi:10.2165/00128071-200809020-00002
[72]  Woo, S.I., Kim, J.Y., Lee, Y.J., et al. (2010) Effect of Lactobacillus sakei supplementation in children with atopic eczema-dermatitis syndrome. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology, 104, 343-348. doi:10.1016/j.anai.2010.01.020
[73]  Inoue, R., Otsuka, M., Nishio, A. and Ushida, K. (2007) Primary administration of Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC533 in weaning period suppresses the elevation of proinflammatory cytokines and CD86 gene expressions in skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, 50, 67-76. doi:10.1111/j.1574-695X.2007.00233.x
[74]  Marschan, E., Kuitunen, M., Kukkonen, K., et al. (2008) Probiotics in infancy induce protective immune profiles that are characteristic for chronic low-grade inflammation. Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 38, 611-618. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2222.2008.02942.x
[75]  Kobayashi, T., Suzuki, T., Kaji, R., et al. (2012) Probiotic upregulation of peripheral IL-17 responses does not exacerbate neurological symptoms in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mouse models. Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology, 34, 423-433. doi:10.3109/08923973.2010.617755
[76]  So, J.S., Kwon, H.K., Lee, C.G., et al. (2008) Lactobacillus casei suppresses experimental arthritis by down-regulating T helper 1 effector functions. Molecular Immunolo- gy, 45, 2690-2699. doi:10.1016/j.molimm.2007.12.010
[77]  Lavasani, S., Dzhambazov, B., Nouri, M., et al. (2010) A novel probiotic mixture exerts a therapeutic effect on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mediated by IL-10 producing regulatory T cells. PLoS ONE, 5, e9009. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0009009
[78]  Niers, L.E., Hoekstra, M.O., Timmerman, H.M., et al. (2007) Selection of probiotic bacteria for prevention of allergic diseases: Immunomodulation of neonatal dendritic cells. Clinical & Experimental Immunology, 149, 344- 352. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2249.2007.03421.x
[79]  Hart, A.L., Lammers, K., Brigidi, P., et al. (2004) Modulation of human dendritic cell phenotype and function by probiotic bacteria. Gut, 53, 1602-1609. doi:10.1136/gut.2003.037325
[80]  Smits, H.H., Engering, A., Van Der Kleij, D., et al. (2005) Selective probiotic bacteria induce IL-10-producing regulatory T cells in vitro by modulating dendritic cell function through dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 115, 1260-1267. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2005.03.036
[81]  Issazadeh-Navikas, S., Teimer, R. and Bockermann, R. (2012) Influence of dietary components on regulatory T cells. Molecular Medicine, 18, 95-110. doi:10.2119/molmed.2011.00311
[82]  Feleszko, W., Jaworska, J., Rha, R.D., et al. (2007) Probiotic-induced suppression of allergic sensitization and airway inflammation is associated with an increase of T regulatory-dependent mechanisms in a murine model of asthma. Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 37, 498-505. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2222.2006.02629.x
[83]  Di Giacinto, C., Marinaro, M., Sanchez, M., et al. (2005) Probiotics ameliorate recurrent Th1-mediated murine colitis by inducing IL-10 and IL-10-dependent TGF-beta- bearing regulatory cells. The Journal of Immunology, 174, 3237-3246.
[84]  Hacini-Rachinel, F., Gheit, H., Le Luduec, J.B., et al. (2009) Oral probiotic control skin inflammation by acting on both effector and regulatory T cells. PLoS ONE, 4, e4903. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004903
[85]  Fujimura, T., Okuyama, R., Ito, Y. and Aiba, S. (2008) Profiles of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in eczematous dermatitis, psoriasis vulgaris and mycosis fungoides. British Journal of Dermatology, 158, 1256-1263. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2133.2008.08504.x
[86]  Kwon, H.K., Lee, C.G., So, J.S., et al. (2010) Generation of regulatory dendritic cells and CD4+Foxp3+ T cells by probiotics administration suppresses immune disorders. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107, 2159-2164. doi:10.1073/pnas.0904055107
[87]  Taylor, A.L., Hale, J., Hales, B.J., et al. (2007) FOXP3 mRNA expression at 6 months of age is higher in infants who develop atopic dermatitis, but is not affected by giving probiotics from birth. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, 18, 10-19. doi:10.1111/j.1399-3038.2006.00483.x
[88]  Weise, C., Zhu, Y., Ernst, D., et al. (2011) Oral administration of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 prevents allergen-induced dermatitis in mice. Experimental Dermatology, 20, 805-809. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0625.2011.01326.x
[89]  Gerasimov, S.V., Vasjuta, V.V., Myhovych, O.O. and Bondarchuk, L.I. (2010) Probiotic supplement reduces atopic dermatitis in preschool children: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. American Journal of Clinical Dermatology, 11, 351-361. doi:10.2165/11531420-000000000-00000
[90]  Chapat, L., Chemin, K., Dubois, B., et al. (2004) Lactobacillus casei reduces CD8+ T cell-mediated skin inflammation. European Journal of Immunology, 34, 2520-2528. doi:10.1002/eji.200425139
[91]  Roessler, A., Friedrich, U., Vogelsang, H., et al. (2008) The immune system in healthy adults and patients with atopic dermatitis seems to be affected differently by a probiotic intervention. Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 38, 93-102.
[92]  Gareau, M.G., Sherman, P.M. and Walker, W.A. (2010) Probiotics and the gut microbiota in intestinal health and disease. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 7, 503-514. doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2010.117
[93]  Rachmilewitz, D., Katakura, K., Karmeli, F., et al. (2004) Toll-like receptor 9 signaling mediates the anti-inflammatory effects of probiotics in murine experimental colitis. Gastroenterology, 126, 520-528. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2003.11.019
[94]  Hoarau, C., Lagaraine, C., Martin, L., et al. (2006) Supernatant of Bifidobacterium breve induces dendritic cell maturation, activation, and survival through a Toll-like receptor 2 pathway. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 117, 696-702. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2005.10.043
[95]  Forsythe, P., Inman, M.D. and Bienenstock, J. (2007) Oral treatment with live Lactobacillus reuteri inhibits the allergic airway response in mice. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 175, 561-569. doi:10.1164/rccm.200606-821OC
[96]  Aumeunier, A., Grela, F., Ramadan, A., et al. (2010) Systemic Toll-like receptor stimulation suppresses experimental allergic asthma and autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice. PLoS ONE, 5, e11484. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011484

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus