A novel liquid dye 2-((2E,5E)-2,5-bis(4-(methyl(2,5, 8,11-tetraoxatridecan-13-yl)amino)benzylidene)cyclopentylidene)
malononitrile (TO-BDCM) was synthesized by incorporating two oligo(ethenyl
glycol) groups into the backbone of a prototype malononitrile derivative (BDCM)
for the purpose of increasing its solubility in organic solvents. The nonlinear
absorption properties of this liquid dye on 1064 nm ns pulsed laser were
investigated in DMF with remarkably high concentration up to ~1M, showing a superior large nonlinear
absorption coefficient of 55.6 cm3/GW2.
Fairly good optical limiting and stabilization effects were achieved. Meanwhile,
the liquid dye exhibited equivalent stability under laser irradiation compared
to its prototype dye BDCM.
G. S. He, L.-S. Tan, Q. D. Zheng and P. N. Prasad, “Multiphoton Absorbing Materials: Molecular Designs, Characterizations and Applications,” Chemical Reviews, Vol. 108, No. 4, 2008, pp. 1245-1330. doi:10.1021/cr050054x
L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, “A Review of Optical Limiting Mechanisms and Devices Using Organics, Fullerenes, Semiconductors and Other Materials,” Progress in Quantum Electronics, Vol. 17, No. 4, 1993, pp. 299-338.
C. R. Giuliano and L. D. Hess, “Nonlinear Absorption of Light: Optical Saturation of Electronic Transition in Organic Molecules with High Intensity Laser Radiation,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol. 3, No. 8, 1967, pp. 358-367. doi:10.1109/JQE.1967.1074603
G. S. He, C. Weder, P. Smith and P. N. Prasad, “Optical Limiting and Stabilization Based on A Novel Polymer Compound,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol. 34, No. 12, 1998, pp. 2279-2285. doi:10.1109/3.736090
S.-J. Chung, T.-C. Lin, K.-S. Kim, G. S. He, J. Swiatkiewicz, P. N. Prasad, G. A. Baker and F. V. Bright, “Two-Photon Absorption and Excited-State Energy-Transfer Properties of A New Multibranched Molecule,” Chemistry of Materials, Vol. 13, No. 11, pp. 4071-4076, 2001. doi:10.1021/cm010151g
G. S. He, Q. D. Zheng, C. G. Lu and P. N. Prasad, “Two-and Three-Photon Absorption Based Optical Limiting and Stabilization Using A Liquid Dye,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol. 41, No. 7, 2005, pp. 1037-1043. doi:10.1109/JQE.2005.848913
J. X. Guan, Y. X. Zhao, F. P. Wu, X. Y. Fang and J. F. Zhao, “Solvent Effect on Optical Limiting and Anti-Damage Properties of Dicyanomethylene Derivatives at 1064 nm,” SPIE Proceedings, Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, Vol. 7132, 2008, pp. 7132131-7132138.doi:10.1117/12.804410
Y. X. Zhao, W. J. Wang, F. P. Wu, Y. Zhou, N. Y. Huang, Y. Gu, Q. L. Zou and W. Yang, “Polyethylene Gly-col-Functionalized Benzylidene Cyclopentanone Dyes for Two-Photon Excited Photodynamic Therapy,” Organic and Biomolecular. Chemistry, Vol. 9, No. 11, 2011, pp. 4168-4175. doi:10.1039/c0ob01278e
G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, P. N. Prasad and B. A. Reinhardt, “Three-Photon-Absorption-Induced Fluorescence and Optical Limiting Effects in An Organic Compound,” Optics. Letters, Vol. 20, No. 14, 1995, pp. 1524-1526. doi:10.1364/OL.20.001524
J. H. Liu, and Y. X. Wang, “Three-Photon-Absorption Induced Optical Stabilization Effects in A Bifluorenylidene Derivative,” Optics Express, Vol. 20, No. 13, 2012, pp. 14596-14603. doi:10.1364/OE.20.014596