All Title Author
Keywords Abstract


An Evaluation of Cotinine as an Index of Exposure to Tabacco Smoke in Children with Recurrent Respiratory Tract Infections Using HPLC Method

DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2013.47A008, PP. 54-62

Keywords: HPLC, Cotinine, Urine, Passive Smoking, Respiratory Infections

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

The authors evaluated the frequency of exposure to tobacco smoke among children suffering from respiratory tract infections. The investigations comprised 141 children aged from 2 months to 6 years that were treated in the 2nd Department of Pediatric and Allergology of Polish Mother’s Memorial Hospital Research Institute in ?ód? (Poland). 69 of them were exposed to tobacco smoke in their home environment. The remaining 72 children came from non-smoking families. 26 (37.7%) individuals among the passive smokers and 15 (20.83%) among the children from non-smoking families suffered from recurrent respiratory tract infections. Cotinine concentrations were evaluated in the group of 69 children using the HPLC-UV method. The determined average cotinine/creatinine index expressed as median was higher in passive smokers with recurrent respiratory infections than among passive smokers with non-recurrent respiratory infections. Moreover, it was stated that the exposure to cigarette smoke was more often among children of younger and less well educated parents as well as living in poor housing conditions. These studies clearly indicate that there is a need for extensive education on the harmful effects of passive smoking and the recurrence of infections.

References

[1]  H. Heydarnejad, H. R. Jamaati, S. F. Tafti, G. R. Heydari, S. Shariat-Panahi and M. Hosseini, “Comparison of Clinic Visits among Children of Smoking and Non-Smoking Families,” Tanaffos, Vol. 5, No. 4, 2006, pp. 47-52.
[2]  P. Keskinoglu, D. Cimrin and G. Aksakoglu, “Relationships between Cotinine, Lower Respiratory Tract Infection, and Eosinophil Cationic Protein in Children,” European Journal of Pediatrics, Vol. 166, No. 5, 2007, pp. 455-459. doi:10.1007/s00431-006-0263-4
[3]  I. Pirogowicz, M. Bujnowska-Fedak, M. Piorek and A. Steciwko, “Effect of Passive Cigarette Smoking on the Frequency of Respiratory Tract Infections, Allergy and Bronchial Asthma in Children,” Przeglqd Lekarski, Vol. 61, No. 10, 2004, pp. 1061-1064.
[4]  K. Tziomalos and F. Charsoulis, “Endocrine Effects of Tobacco Smoking,” Clinical Endocrinology, Vol. 61, No. 6, 2004, pp. 664-674. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2265.2004.02161.x
[5]  S. Farchi, F. Forastiere, G. Cesaroni and C. A. Perucci, “Environmental Exposures and Hospitalisation for Respiratory Conditions in Children: A Five Year Follow up Study in Rome, Italy,” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 63, No. 8, 2006, pp. 573-576. doi:10.1136/oem.2005.023556
[6]  O. C. Ilicali, N. Keles, K. Dèger, O. F. Sàgun and Y. Guldiken, “Evaluation of the Effect of Passive Smoking on Otitis Media in Children by an Objective Method: Urinary Cotinine Analysis,” Laryngoskope, Vol. 111, No. 1, 2001, pp. 163-167. doi:10.1097/00005537-200101000-00028
[7]  B. Kamer, R. Pasowska, K. Pyziak and A. Kamer-Bartosińska, “Evaluation of Exposure to Passive Smoking in Infants and Small Children with Food Allergy,” Srodowiskowe Zródla Zagrozeń Zdrowotnych, Lublin, 2007.
[8]  J. Kolodziejczyk, “The Effect of Passive Smoking on the Health of Nonsmokers,” Kosmos Seria A, Biologia, Vol. 51, No. 1, 2002, pp. 47-55.
[9]  M. H. J. Sikorska-Jaroszyńska, M. Mielnik-Blaszczak, D. Krawczyk, A. Nasilowska-Barud and J. Blaszczak, “Passive Smoking as an Environmental Health Risk Factor,” Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 19, No. 3, 2012, pp. 547-550.
[10]  C. I. Vardavas, M. N. Tzatzarkis, M. Plada, A. M. Tzatzarkis, A. Papadki, W. H. Saris, L. A. Moreno and A. G. Kafatos, “Biomarker Evaluation of Greek Adolescents’ Exposure to Secondhand Smoke,” Human & Experimental Toxicology, Vol. 29, No. 6, 2010, pp. 459-466. doi:10.1177/0960327109354941
[11]  K. Yolton, K. Dietrich, P. Auinger, B. P. Lanphear and R. Hornung, “Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Cognitive Abilities among U.S. Children and Adolescents,” Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 113, No. 1, 2005, pp. 98-103. doi:10.1289/ehp.7210
[12]  J. M. Samet, E. M. Lewit and K. E. Warner, “Involuntary Smoking and Children’s Health,” Critical Health Issues for Children and Youth, Vol. 4, No. 3, 1994, pp. 94-114.
[13]  K. Polańska and W. Hanke, “Postnatal Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Children’s Health”, Przeglqd Pediatryczny, Vol. 35, No. 4, 2005, pp. 225-228.
[14]  E. Florek, M. K. Kornacka, A. Hubert, J. Wilimowska and A. Basior, “The Level of Cotinine in Urine and Placenta of Women Smoking or Exposure to Tobacco Smoke during Pregnancy,” Przeglqd Lekarski, Vol. 61, No. 10, 2004, pp. 1090-1093.
[15]  S. Gidding, W. Morgan, C. Perry, J. Isabel-Jones and T. Bricker, “Active and Passive Tobacco Exposure: A Serious Pediatric Health Problem,” AHA Medical/Scientific Statement Special Report, Vol. 90, No. 5, 1994, pp. 25812590.
[16]  G. S. Metsios, A. D. Flouris, M. Angioi and Y. Koutedakis, “Passive Smoking and the Development of Cardiovascular Disease in Children: A Systematic Review,” Cardiology Research and Practice, Vol. 2011, 2011. doi:10.4061/2011/587650
[17]  P. Tutka, M. Wielosz and W. Zatoński, “Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Children Health,” International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, Vol. 15, No. 4, 2002, pp. 325-335.
[18]  T. Jedrzejczyk, M. Zarzeczna-Baran and L. Balwicki, “Smoking among Pregnant Women in Gdansk—Social Background of the Phenomenon,” Problemy Higieny i Epidemiologii, Vol. 87, No. 4, 2006, pp. 265-269.
[19]  Y. Lu, S. Tong and B. Oldenburg, “Determinants of Smoking and Cessation during and after Pregnancy,” Health Promotion International, Vol. 16, No. 4, 2001, pp. 355356. doi:10.1093/heapro/16.4.355
[20]  K. Polańska, W. Hanke, W. Sobala and J. Jurewicz, “Exposure to Tobacco Smoke of Pregnant Women—Result of Prospective Study in Lodz Region,” Przeglqd Lekarski, Vol. 64, No. 10, 2007, pp. 824-826.
[21]  M. Baumert, “Maternal Smoking and Fetal and Neonatal Development,” Przeglqd Pediatryczny, Vol. 34, No. 2, 2004, pp. 79-83.
[22]  A. Castles, E. K. Adams, C. L. Melvin, C. Kelsh and M. L. Boulton, “Effects of Smoking during Pregnancy. Five Meta-Analyses,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Vol. 16, No. 3, 1999, pp. 208-215. doi:10.1016/S0749-3797(98)00089-0
[23]  J. R. DiFranza, C. A. Aligne and M. Weitzman, “Prenatal and Postnatal Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Children’s Health,” Pediatrics, Vol. 113, 2004, pp. 1007-1015.
[24]  W. Sabanty and H. Brózik, “Selected Parameters of Health Condition and the Concentration of Cotinine in Urine in Children from Primary Schools in Lodz Exposed to Tobacco Smoke in their Home Environment,” Przeglqd Pediatryczny, Vol. 34, No. 2, 2004, pp. 52-59.
[25]  D. Kardas-Sobantka, D. Chlebna-Sokól and A. Stańczyk, “Nalóg Palenia Tytoniu `w Srodowisku Domowym Dzieci Przedszkolnych,” IV Francusko-Polskie Spotkanie Pediatryczne, Warszawa, 1995, p. 197.
[26]  C. E. Bartecchini,T. MacKenzie and R. Schrier, “Zdrowotne Skutki Palenia Papierosów,” Swiat Nauki, Vol. 47, No. 7, 1995, pp. 26-34.
[27]  W. Zatoński, “Democracy and Health: Tobacco Control in Poland,” In: J. de Beyer and W. Brigden, Eds., Tobacco Control Policy, Strategies, Successes, and Setbacks, World Bank and TITC, Washington, 2003, pp. 97-120.
[28]  H.-S. Shin, J.-G. Kim, Y.-J. Shin and S. H. Jee, “Sensitive and Simple Method for the Determination of Nicotine and Cotinine in Human Urine, Plasma and Saliva by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry,” Journal of Chromatography B, Vol. 769, No. 1, 2002, pp. 177-183. doi:10.1016/S1570-0232(02)00007-7
[29]  J. W. Leong, N. D. Dore, K. Shelley, E. J. Holt, I. A. Laing, L. J. Palmer and P. N. LeSouef, “The Elimination Half-Life of Urinary Cotinine in Children of Tobacco Smoking Mothers,” Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Vol. 11, No. 4, 1998, pp. 287-290. doi:10.1006/pupt.1998.0153
[30]  C. Barbier, N. Houdret, C. Vittrant, A. Deschildre and D. Turk, “Study of Passive Smoking Measured by Urinary Cotinine in Maternal and Child Protective Health Centers in North-Pas-de-Calais,” Archives de Pédiatrie, Vol. 7, No. 7, 2000, pp. 719-724. doi:10.1016/S0929-693X(00)80151-7
[31]  R. Bono, M. Vincenti, T. Schiliro, D. Traversi, C. Pignata, E. Scursatone, G. Dotti and G. Gilli, “Cotinine and N-(2-hydroxyethyl)valine as Markers of Passive Exposure to Tobacco Smoke in Children,” Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology, Vol. 15, No. 1, 2005, pp. 66-73. doi:10.1038/sj.jea.7500344
[32]  P. B. Doctor, V. N. Gokani, P. K. Kulkarni, J. R. Parikh and H. N. Saiyed, “Determination of Nicotine and Cotinine in Tobacco Harvesters’ Urine by Solid-Phase Extraction and Liquid Chromatography,” Journal of Chromatography B, Vol. 802, No. 2, 2004, pp. 323-328. doi:10.1016/j.jchromb.2003.12.013
[33]  H. W. Kuo, J. S. Yang and M. C. Chiu, “Determination of Urinary and Salivary Cotinine Using Gas and Liquid Chromatography and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay,” Journal of Chromatography B, Vol. 768, No. 2, 2002, pp. 297-303. doi:10.1016/S1570-0232(01)00613-4
[34]  B. Koszowski, J. Czolga, M. L. Goniewicz, A. Sobczak, E. Kolasińska, L. Kosmider and T. Kuma, “Use of Hair Nicotine as a Tool to Assess Tobacco Smoke Exposure,” Przeglad Lekarski, Vol. 65, No. 10, 2008, pp. 696-699.
[35]  N. L. Benowitz, “Cotinine as a Biomarker of Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure,” Epidemiologic Reviews, Vol. 18, No. 2, 1996, pp. 188-204. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.epirev.a017925
[36]  R. Kronstrand, I. Nystrom, J. Strandberg and H. Druid, “Screening for Drugs of Abuse in Hair with Ion Spray LC-MS-MS,” Forensic Science International, Vol. 145, No. 2-3, 2004, pp. 183-190. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2004.04.034
[37]  C. Oddoze, A. M. Pauli and J. Pastor, “Rapid and Sensitive High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Nicotine and Cotinine in Nonsmoker Human and Rat Urines,” Journal of Chromatography B, Vol. 708, No. 1-2, 1998, pp. 95-101. doi:10.1016/S0378-4347(97)00632-4
[38]  E. Peterson, C. Johnson and D. Ownby, “Use of Urinary Cotinine and Questionnaires in the Evaluation of Infant Exposure to Tobacco Smoke in Epidemiologic Studies,” Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, Vol. 50, No. 8, 1997, pp. 917-923. doi:10.1016/S0895-4356(97)00095-4
[39]  G. Scherer, I. Meger-Kossien, K. Riedel, T. Renner and M. Meger, “Assessment of the Exposure of Children to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) by Different Methods,” Human & Experimental Toxicology, Vol. 18, No. 4, 1999, pp. 297-301. doi:10.1191/096032799678840075
[40]  M. Krzywiecka, A. Obuchowicz, C. Bukowska, T. Wielkoszynski, A. Swietochowska-Chechlińska and J. KulaGradzik “Evaluation of Infants and Younger Children Passive Smoking at Home and Prevalence of their Lower Respiratory Tract Infections,” Przeglqd Lekarski, Vol. 63, No. 10, 2006, pp. 827-830.
[41]  C. Bell, “Nicotine in Psychiatry: Psychopathology and Emerging Therapeutics,” JAMA, Vol. 284, No. 6, 2000, pp. 764-765. doi:10.1001/jama.284.6.764
[42]  Y.-C. Chen, C.-H. Tsai and Y. L. Lee, “Early-Life Indoor Environmental Exposures Increase the Risk of Childhood Asthma,” International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, Vol. 215, No. 1, 2011, pp. 19-25. doi:10.1016/j.ijheh.2011.07.004
[43]  V. Ernster, R. Kaufman, M. Nichter, J. Samet and S. Y. Yoon, “Women and Tobacco: Movingfrom Policy to Action,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, Vol. 78, No. 7, 2000, pp. 891-901.
[44]  J. J. Lee, D. Liu, J. S. Lee, J. M. Kurie, F. R. Khuri, H. Ibarguen, R. C. Morice, G. Walsh, J. Y. Ro, A. Broxson, W. K. Hong and W. N. Hittelman, “Long-Term Impact of Smoking on Lung Epithelial Paroliferation in Current and Former Smokers,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Vol. 93, No. 14, 2001, pp. 1081-1088. doi:10.1093/jnci/93.14.1081
[45]  M. Wróblewska and P. Kuna, “Tobacco Smoke and Diseases of the Respiratory System,” Terapia, Vol. 15, No. 4, 2007, pp. 90-96.
[46]  H. Kimata, A. Yoshida, C. Ishioka, M. Fujimoto, I. Lindley and K. Furusho, “RANTES and Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 1 Selectively Enhance Immunoglobulin E (IgE) and IgG4 Production by Human B Cells,” The Journal of Experimental Medicine, Vol. 183, No. 5, 1996, pp. 2397-2402. doi:10.1084/jem.183.5.2397
[47]  S. Popovic-Grle, “Allergic Diseases and Smoking,” Acta Medica Croatica, Vol. 65, No. 2, 2011, pp. 141-146.
[48]  K. Kusmierek, R. Glowacki and E. Bald, “Analysis of Urine for Cysteine, Cysteinylglycine, and Homocysteine by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography,” Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, Vol. 385, No. 5, 2006, pp. 855-860. doi:10.1007/s00216-006-0454-x
[49]  B. Majkowska-Wojciechowska, B. Laskowska, Z. Wojciechowski and M. Kowalski, “Prevalence of Allergy in School Children in Lodz. Relation to Home and School Environment,” Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology, Vol. 5, No. 2, 2000, pp. 115-122.
[50]  M. D. Lebowitz, D. Sherill and C. J. Holberg, “Effects of Passive Smoking on Lung Growth in Children,” Pediatric Pulmonology, Vol. 12, No. 1, 1992, pp. 27-42. doi:10.1002/ppul.1950120109
[51]  J. A. Mennella, L. M. Yourshaw and L. K. Morgan, “Breastfeeding and Smoking: Short-Term Effects on Infant Feeding and Sleep,” Pediatrics, Vol. 120, No. 3, 2007, pp. 497-502. doi:10.1542/peds.2007-0488
[52]  G. L. Marseglia, M. A. Avanzini, S. Caimmi, A. Marseglia, C. Valsecchi, D. Poddighe, G. Ciprandi, F. Pagella, C. Klersy and A. M. Castellazzi, “Passive Exposure to Smoke Results in Defective Interferon-Gamma Production by Adenoids in Children with Recurrent Respiratory Infections,” Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research, Vol. 29, No. 8, 2009, pp. 427-432. doi:10.1089/jir.2008.0108
[53]  J. M. Knight, C. Eliopoulos, J. Klein, M. Greenwald and G. Koren, “Passive Smoking in Children. Racial Differences in Systemic Exposure to Cotinine by Hair and Urine Analysis,” Chest, Vol. 109, No. 2, 1996, pp. 446450. doi:10.1378/chest.109.2.446
[54]  D. M. Mannino, R. Caraballo, N. Benowitz, J. Repace, “Predictors of Cotinine Levels in US Children: Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey,” Chest, Vol. 120, No. 3, 2001, pp. 718-724. doi:10.1378/chest.120.3.718

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us

service@oalib.com

QQ:3279437679

微信:OALib Journal