Citruses are the worlds’ second
fruit crops by volume next to banana. It is one of the most important
commodity in tropical Africa as source of foreign currency, raw material for
agro-industries and source of employment. The production and productivity
of citrus in tropical Africa including Ethiopia are critically threatened by
a number of diseases. Among others, pseudocercospora leaf and fruit spot of
citrus caused by a fungus Pseudocercospora angolensis is the most destructive disease of citrus. Literature reviews
have been made by searching the available information on leaf and fruit spot
of citrus. Journal articles, research papers, workshop proceedings, Thesis
research, manuals, and quarantine regulations were among the information
sources of the review. The disease is widespread in 22 African countries
including Ethiopia with a single report around Yemen in the Arabian Peninsula.
Scattered research efforts have been made by different researchers in Africa
mainly dealing with its geographic distribution, biology, and management
practices. Fungicides, plant extracts/essential oils, and host resistance are
among the research efforts made for the control of P. angolensis. Even though the disease is not yet reported to the
rest of the world, it becomes a serious concern as an important quarantine
pest thereby critically affecting the world trade and germplasm exchange of
the citrus industry. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to compile the
scattered information on various aspects of leaf and fruit spot of citrus
mainly to avail the information for researchers, development workers and
policy people. Moreover, this review will suggest future research and
development direction towards better understanding and sustainable management
practices of the disease.
Harling, R., Shamie, I.M.O., Sesay, S.S., Kamara, A.B., Reeder, R., Boa, E. and Kelly, P. (2010) First report of Pseudocercospora angolensis causing leaf and fruit spot of citrus in Sierra Leone. New Disease Reports, 22.
Ducelier, D. (2006) Effect of essential oils from citrus varieties on in vitro growth and sporulation of Phaeoramularia angolensis causing citrus leaf and fruit spot disease. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 114, 151-161. doi:10.1007/s10658-005-2928-7
Tchinda, E.S., Jazet, P.M.D., Tatsadjieu, L.N., Ndongson, B.D., Amvam, P.H.Z. and Menut C. (1999) Antifungal activity of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus (Poaceae) against Phaeoramularia. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants, 12, 218-224.
Kuate, J., Foko, J., Ndindeng, S.A., Dongmo, P.M.Z., Foure, E., Damesse, F., Manga, B. and Ducelier, D. (2006) Effect of essential oils from citrus varieties on in vitro growth and sporulation of Phaeoramularia angolensis causing citrus leaf and fruit spot disease. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 114, 151-161.
Dongmo, P.M., Tastadjieu, N.L., Tchinda, S.E., Kuate, J., Zollo, P.A. and Menut, C. (2008) Antiradical potential and antifungal activities of essential oils of the leaves of citrus latifolia against Phaeoramularia angolensis. African Journal of Biotechnology, 22, 4045-4050.
Dongmo, P.M.J., Ngoune, L.T., Dongmo, B.N., Kuate, J., Zollo, P.H.A. and Menut C. (2008) Antifungal potential of Eucalyptus saligna and Eucalyptus camaldulensis essential oils from Cameroon against Phaeoramularia angolensis. European Journal of Scientific Research, 24, 348-357.
Mohammed, Y. (2001) Phaeoramularia leaf and fruit spot of citrus, a major threat to citrus production in tropical Africa. Proceedings of Hortic Workshop on Sustainable Horticultural Production in the Tropics, Jomo Kenyata University, Nairobi, 3-6 October 2001, 18-25.