All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Recovery of Essential Plant Nutrients from Biofuel Residual

DOI: 10.4236/jsbs.2013.32021, PP. 149-159

Keywords: Bioenergy Biomass, Dry Matter Yield, Leaching N and P Losses, Processed Biofuel Residual (PBR), Sweet Sorghum

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


Essential plant nutrients contained in residues and wastes generated during biofuel processing can be recovered for further production of bioenergy biomass. The objective of this study was to determine the relative agronomic efficiency of “processed” biofuel residual (PBR). Liquid biofuel residual was “processed” by precipitating phosphate and ammonium in the residual with magnesium into a struvite-like material. Then, in a series of greenhouse experiments, we evaluated the fertility potential of PBR, using sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench), as a test bioenergy crop. We compared the agronomic effectiveness of PBR to inorganic commercial fertilizers, biosolids, and poultry manure as nutrient sources. The sources were either applied alone or in combination with supplemental essential plant nutrients (S, K, Mg, and micronutrients). In each of the greenhouse experiments, the crop was grown for 12 wk on soil of minimal native fertility. After each harvest, sufficient water was applied to the soil in each pot over a 6-wk period to yield ~2 L (~one pore volume) of leachate to assess potential total N and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) losses. Dry matter yields from the PBR treatment applied alone were significantly greater than yields from inorganic fertilizers, biosolids, and poultry manure treatments applied alone, and similar to yields obtained when the supplemental essential plant nutrients were added to the inorganic fertilizer, biosolids, and manure treatments. Leachate N and SRP concentrations from the PBR treatment were significantly lower than in the treatments with inorganic fertilizers, poultry manure, and biosolids. We conclude that PBR can substitute for inorganic fertilizers and other organic sources of plant nutrients to produce bioenergy biomass cheaply, without causing offsite N and P losses in vulnerable soils.


[1]  A. Demirbas, “Political, Economic and Environmental Impacts of Biofuels: A Review,” Applied Energy, Vol. 86, No. S1, 2009, pp. S108-S117. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2009.04.036
[2]  S. Kim and B. E. Dale, “Global Potential Bioethanol Production from Wasted Crops and Crop Residues,” Biomass and Bioenergy, Vol. 26, No. 4, 2004, pp. 361-375. doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2003.08.002
[3]  P. C. Pullammanappallil, S. A. Svoronos, D. P. Chynoweth and G. Lyberatos, “Expert System for Control of Anaerobic Digesters,” Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Vol. 58, No. 1, 1998, pp. 13-22. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0290(19980405)58:1<13::AID-BIT2>3.0.CO;2-X
[4]  S. Gadekar and P. Pullammanappallil, “Validation and Applications of a Chemical Equilibrium Model for Struvite Precipitation,” Environmental Modelling and Assessment, Vol. 15, No. 3, 2010, pp. 201-209. doi:10.1007/s10666-009-9193-7
[5]  X. Z. Li, Q. L. Zhao and X. D. Hao, “Ammonium Removal from Landfill Leachate by Chemical Precipitation,” Waste Management, Vol. 19, No. 6, 1999, pp. 409415. doi:10.1016/S0956-053X(99)00148-8
[6]  P. Battistoni, G. Fava, P. Pavan, A. Musacco and F. Cecchi, “Phosphate Removal in Anaerobic Liquors by Struvite Crystallization without Addition of Chemicals: Preliminary Results,” Water Research, Vol. 31, No. 11, 1997, pp. 2925-2929. doi:10.1016/S0043-1354(97)00137-1
[7]  M. Altinbas, C. Yangin and I. Ozturk, “Struvite Precipitation from Anaerobically Treated Municipal and Landfill Wastewaters,” Water Science and Technology, Vol. 46, No. 9, 2002, pp. 271-278.
[8]  S. Antonini, M. A. Arias, T. Eichert and J. Clemens, “Greenhouse Evaluation and Environmental Impact Assessment of Different Urine-Derived Struvite Fertilizers as Phosphorus Sources for Plants,” Chemosphere, Vol. 89, No. 10, 2012, pp. 1202-1210. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.07.026
[9]  I. Kabdasli, O. Tunay, M. S. Cetin and T. Olmez, “Assessment of Magnesium Ammonium Phosphate Precipitation for the Treatment of Leather Tanning Industry Wastewaters,” Water Science and Technology, Vol. 46, No. 4-5, 2002, pp. 231-239.
[10]  S. Kalyuzhnyi, V. Sklyar, A. E. L. Arkhipchenko, I. Barboulina, O. Orlova and A. Klapwijk, “Combined Biological and Physico-Chemical Treatment of Filtered Pig Manure Wastewater: Pilot Investigations,” Water Science and Technology, Vol. 45, No. 12, 2002, pp. 79-87.
[11]  N. O. Nelson, R. L. Mikkelsen and D. L. Hesterberg, “Struvite Precipitation in Anaerobic Swine Lagoon Liquid: Effect of pH and Mg:P Ratio and Determination of Rate Constant,” Bioresource Technology, Vol. 89, No. 9, 2003, pp. 229-236. doi:10.1016/S0960-8524(03)00076-2
[12]  G. E. Diwani, S. E. Rafie, N. N. E. Ibiari and H. I. ElAila, “Recovery of Ammonia Nitrogen from Industrial Wastewater Treatment as Struvite Slow Releasing Fertilizer,” Desalination, Vol. 214, No. 1-3, 2007, pp. 200-214. doi:10.1016/j.desal.2006.08.019
[13]  K. Yetilmezsoy and Z. Sapci-Zengin, “Recovery of Ammonium Nitrogen from the Effluent of UASB Treating Poultry Manure Wastewater by MAP Precipitation as a Slow Release Fertilizer,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 166, No. 1, 2009, pp. 60-269. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.11.025
[14]  J. M. Andersen, “An Ignition Method for Determination of Total Phosphorus in Lake Sediments,” Water Research, Vol. 10, No. 4, 1976, pp. 329-331.
[15]  A. Mehlich, “Mehlich-3 Soil Test Extractant: A Modification of Mehlich-2 Extractant,” Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, Vol. 15, No. 12, 1984, 1409-1416. doi:10.1080/00103628409367568
[16]  W. H. Gardner, “Water Content,” In: A. Klute, Ed., Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 1, ASA Monograph, 9, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, 1986, pp. 493-545.
[17]  G. W. Thomas, “Soil pH and Soil Acidity,” In: D. L. Sparks, Ed., Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 3, SSSA Book Series, 5, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, 1996, pp. 475-490.
[18]  J. M. Bremmer, “Determination of Nitrogen in Soil by the Kjeldahl Method,” Journal of Agricultural Science, Vol. 55, No. 1, 1960, pp. 11-33. doi:10.1017/S0021859600021572
[19]  D. R. Keeney and D. W. Nelson, “Nitrogen—Inorganic Forms,” In: A. L. Page, Ed., Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2, ASA Monograph, 9, 2nd Edition, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, 1982, pp. 498-523.
[20]  E. Florence and D. F. Milner, “Routine Determination of Nitrogen by Kjeldahl Digestion without Use of Catalyst,” Analyst, Vol. 104, No. 1237, 1979, pp. 378-381. doi:10.1039/an9790400378
[21]  J. D. Beaton, G. R. Burns and J. Platou, “Determination of Sulfur in Soils and Plant Materials,” Tech Bull. No. 14, Sulfur Institute, Washington DC, 1968.
[22]  R. C. Brandt, H. A. Elliott and G. A. O’Connor, “Water Extractable Phosphorus in Biosolids: Implications for Land-Based Recycling,” Water Environment Research, Vol. 76, No. 2, 2004, pp. 121-129. doi:10.2175/106143004X141645
[23]  S. Agyin-Birikorang, G. A. O’Connor and S. R. Brinton, “Evaluating Phosphorus Loss from a Florida Spodosol as Affected by P-Source Application Methods,” Journal of Environmental Quality, Vol. 37, No. 3, 2008, pp. 11801189. doi:10.2134/jeq2007.0535
[24]  P. R. Day, “Particle Fractionation and Particle-Size Analysis,” In: C. A. Black, D. D. Evans and R. C. Dinauer, Eds., Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 1, ASA Monograph, 9, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, 1965, pp. 545-567.
[25]  E. O. McLean, “Soil pH and Lime Requirement,” In: A. L. Page, Ed., Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2, ASA Monograph, 9, 2nd Edition, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, 1982, pp. 199-224.
[26]  D. W. Nelson and L. E. Sommers, “Total Carbon, Organic Carbon, and Organic Matter,” In: D. L. Sparks, Ed., Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 3, SSSA Book Series, 5, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, 1996, pp. 961-1010.
[27]  S. Kuo, “Phosphorus,” In: D. L. Sparks, Ed., Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 3, ASA Monograph, 5, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, 1996, pp. 869-919.
[28]  R. Mylavarapu, D. Wright, G. Kidder and C. G. Chambliss, “UF/IFAS Standardized Fertilization Recommendations for Agronomic Crops,” Coop. Ext. Serv. IFAS, University of Florida, SL129, 2007.
[29]  S. L. Chinault and G. A. O’Connor, “Phosphorus Release from a Biosolids-Amended Sandy Spodosol,” Journal of Environmental Quality, Vol. 37, No. 3, 2008, pp. 937-943. doi:10.2134/jeq2007.0139
[30]  A. S. Bennett and R. P. Anex, “Farm-Gate Production Costs of Sweet Sorghum as a Bioethanol Feedstock,” Transactions of the ASABE, Vol. 56, No. 2, 2008, pp. 603-613.
[31]  A. Monti and G. Venturi, “Comparison of the Energy Performance of Fibre Sorghum, Sweet Sorghum and Wheat Monocultures in Northern Italy,” European Journal of Agronomy, Vol. 19, No. 1, 2003, pp. 35-43. doi:10.1016/S1161-0301(02)00017-5
[32]  J. Murphy and J. P. Riley, “A Modified Single Solution Method for the Determination of Phosphate in Natural Waters,” Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 26, No. 1, 1962, pp. 31-36. doi:10.1016/S0003-2670(00)88444-5
[33]  R. N. Gallaher, C. O. Weldon and J. G. Futral, “An Aluminum Block Digester for Plant and Soil Analysis,” Soil Science Society of America Journal, Vol. 39, No. 4, 1975, pp. 803-806. doi:10.2136/sssaj1975.03615995003900040052x
[34]  S. H. Chien, R. G. Menon and K. S. Billingham, “Estimation of Phosphorus Availability to Maize and Cowpea from Phosphate Rock as Enhanced by Water-Soluble Phosphorus,” Soil Science Society of America Journal, Vol. 60, No. 4, 1996, pp. 81173-1177. doi:10.2136/sssaj1996.03615995006000040031x
[35]  United States Environmental Protection Agency, “Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastes,” EPA600/4-79-020, USEPA, Washington DC, 1983.
[36]  SAS Institute, “SAS Online Documentation,” Version 9.1.3, SAS Institute, Cary, 2002.
[37]  R. C. Littell, G. A. Milliken, W. W. Stroup and R. D. Wolfinger, “SAS System for Mixed Models,” SAS Institute, Cary, 1996.
[38]  G. E. P. Box and D. R. Cox, “An Analysis of Transformations,” Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B: Statistical Methodology, Vol. 26, No. 2, 1964, 211-243.
[39]  N. C. Brady and R. R. Weil, “The Nature and Properties of Soil,” 14th Edition, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, 2007.
[40]  H. A. Elliott, G. A. O’Connor and S. Brinton, “Phosphorus Leaching from Biosolids-Amended Sandy Soils,” Journal of Environmental Quality, Vol. 32, No. 2, 2002, pp. 681-689. doi:10.2134/jeq2002.0681
[41]  P. Jain, J. Yong-Chul, T. Thabet, M. Witwer and T. Townsend, “Recycling of Water Treatment Plant Sludge via Land Application: Assessment of Risk,” Journal of Residuals Science and Technology, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2005, pp. 13-23.
[42]  United States Environmental Protection Agency, “Process design Manual: Land Application of Sewage Sludge and Domestic Septage,” EPA/625/R-95/001, Office of Research and Development, Cincinnati, 1995.
[43]  G. A. O’Connor and H. A. Elliott, “The Agronomic and Environmental Availability of Biosolids-P (Phase II),” Rep. 99-PUM-2T Water Environment Research Foundation, Alexandria.
[44]  H. A. Elliott, R. C. Brandt and G. A. O’Connor, “Runoff Phosphorus Losses from Surface-Applied Biosolids,” Journal of Environmental Quality, Vol. 34, No. 5, 2005, pp. 1632-1639. doi:10.2134/jeq2004.0467
[45]  C. Plaza, R. Sanz, C. Clemente, J. M. Fernandez, R. Gonzalez and A. Polo, “Greenhouse Evaluation of Struvite and Sludges from Municipal Wastewater Treatment Works as Phosphorus Sources for Plants,” Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment, Vol. 55, No. 20, 2007, pp. 8206-8212. doi:10.1021/jf071563y
[46]  K. Yetilmezsoy, B. Sertyesilisik, E. Kocak and Z. SapciZengin, “Ameliorative Effect of Different Doses of Mg NH4PO4-6H2O Precipitate Recovered from the Effluent of UASB Treating Poultry Manure Wastewater: Growth of Lolium perenne,” Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment, Vol. 7, No. 3-4, 2009, pp. 823-831.
[47]  United States Department of Agricultures, “Fertilizer Use and Price,” 2012.


comments powered by Disqus