Background: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) had been chosen as a candidategene for schizophrenia. This study investigated the relationships betweenBDNF G196A gene polymorphism and clinical phenotypes in schizophreniapatients in the Taiwanese population.Methods: During a one year period, 132 schizophrenic patients and 103 healthy controlswere recruited. Psychiatric diagnoses were made according to DSM-IVcriteria. Genotyping of the G196A polymorphism of BDNF was performedby polymerase chain reaction amplification and restriction fragment lengthpolymorphism.Results: The data showed that the BDNF G196A genotypes and their allele distributionsdid not differ between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls.No significant differences were noted in the BDNF G196A genotypes andallele distribution between schizophrenia patients with and without a familytendency for schizophrenia or between those with an age of onset before orafter 25 years old. However, there was a significant difference in BDNFG196A genotype distribution between schizophrenia patients with and withouta suicide history.Conclusions: These analytical results suggest that BDNF G196A gene polymorphism isassociated with a susceptibility to a suicide history in schizophrenia patientsin the Taiwanese population. Further study with a larger number of samplesis needed to prove these findings.