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Pharmacotherapeutic Options for Visceral Leishmaniasis - Current Scenario

Keywords: visceral leishmaniasis , sodium stibogluconate , Amphotericin B , miltefosine , paromomycin , sitamaquine

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Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or Kala-azar is a protozoal disease, which was previously regarded as one of the most neglected tropical diseases. Management of this disease is quite difficult, because it is said to affect the poorest of the poor. Previously Sodium Stibogluconate (SSG) was regarded as the gold standard treatment for VL. But due to the increasing unresponsiveness, to this drug various other drugs were tried and are still being tried. Pentamidine is very toxic and has been discarded of late. Amphotericin B and its lipid formulations are very effective but require hospital admission and monitoring. Oral drugs like Miltefosine have already been launched. An amino glycoside Paromomycin and another oral drug Sitamaquine are in the pipe line. Interferon gamma has been used with discouraging results.


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