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Endobronchial Epstein-Barr Virus Associated Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

Keywords: bronchoscopy , endobronchial patterns , epstein-barr virus , hematopoietic stem cell transplantation , post transplant lymphoproliferative disorders

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Abstract:

The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) associated Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorders (PTLD) are increasingly recognized as a fatal complication of hematological stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Thoracic involvement, that may be isolated or part of a disseminated disease, usually encompasses pulmonary nodules or masses and mediastinal lymph node enlargement. The current case study presents 2 patients who underwent HSCT, one allogenic and the other autologous, who developed an exceptional endobronchial EBV related PTLD. The first patient had a fleshy white endobronchial mass resulting in a right upper lobe atelectasis and the second had an extensive necrotising mucosa from trachea to both basal bronchi without any significant change of lung parenchyma on the CT scan. In both cases, the diagnosis was made by bronchial biopsies. Physicians should be aware of an endobronchial pattern of EBV associated PTLD after HSCT to permit quick diagnosis and therapeutic intervention.

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