In post-war Poland there were three mass emigration movements of Polish citizens with Jewish origins to Israel. In my paper I would like to concentrate on the emigration that took place between 1956 and 1959. It is the vast subject that cannot be presented fully in this short paper. Therefore I will focus only on some aspects concerning this issue. First of all, I will describe political and social situation that was present in the ‘50s in Poland. Secondly, I would like to indicate the reasons behind the Jewish mass emigration from Poland as well as its structure. Finally, I will present the problems, which the emigrants had to face while leaving Poland.