Wood and bark fibers of Acacia melanoxylon were characterized and compared to Eucalyptus globulus which is a major quality source of pulp fibers. In 20 trees from four sites, fiber length and wall thickness were measured at 5, 35 and 65% of total tree height and at 10, 30, 50, 70 and 90% of the distance from pith. Maceration were prepared in a 1:1 glacial acetic acid:hydrogen peroxide solution. Wood and bark fiber length varied between 0.90 - 0.96 mm and 1.33 - 1.59 mm respectively. The cell wall thickness varied between 3.45 - 3.89 μm in wood and 5.01 - 5.40 μm in bark. Wood and bark fiber length decreased from the bottom to the top of the tree and cell wall thickness had no specific pattern for axial variation. Fiber length and wall thickness increased from the pith to the bark, but the wall thickness increased slightly with some fluctuations. In Acacia melanoxylon significant site differences were found in relation to bark fiber length and to wood wall thickness. The fibers of Acacia melanoxylon were similar to those of Eucalyptus globulus but the wood fibers were thinner and the bark fibers thicker. The radial variation was similar in both species. In wood of Eucalyptus globulus, fiber wall thickness increases from the base to the middle of tree height and decreases to the top; in the bark decreases from the base to the top. In Eucalyptus globulus fibers bark are higher in the top.