The effect of dose and volume of a perimuscular injection of Bothrops jararacussu venom on myonecrosis of skeletal muscle was studied in mice. An increase of the venom dose (0.25 to 2.0 μg/g) at a given volume (50 μl) resulted in an increase in plasma creatine kinase (CK) levels 2 h after injection. Plasma CK activity increased from the basal level of 129.27 ± 11.83 (N = 20) to 2392.80 ± 709.43 IU/l (N = 4) for the 1.0 μg/g dose. Histological analysis of extensor digitorum longus muscle 4 h after injection showed lesion of peripheral muscle fibers, disorganization of the bundles or the complete degeneration of muscle fibers. These lesions were more extensive when higher doses were injected. Furthermore, an increase in volume (12.5 to 100 μl) by dilution of a given dose (0.5 μg/g) also increased plasma CK levels from 482.31 ± 122.79 to 919.07 ± 133.33 IU/l (N = 4), respectively. These results indicate that care should be taken to standardize volumes and sites of venom injections.