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The monoclonal antibody 26 raised against tetanus toxoid also recognizes tetanus toxin and b2-glycoprotein I – its binding properties in vitro and potential applications

Keywords: tetanus toxoid , tetanus toxin , monoclonal antibodies , formaldehyde

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Abstract:

A murine monoclonal IgG1 antibody, marked as MAb26, specific for tetanus toxoid has been immunochemically characterized. By performing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and western blot analyses, it was demonstrated that MAb26 reacted with tetanus toxoid, tetanus toxin and b2-glycoprotein I (b2GPI). According to the results, MAb26 recognized the sequential epitope on the tetanus heavy chain. The affinity constant, calculated from Scatchard plots of MAb26 binding to tetanus toxoid, was 1.145′108 M-1 and the measurement of the relative affinity of MAb26 by ELISA using thiocyanate elution showed a significantly higher affinity of MAb26 to the toxoid (p = 0.0012) in comparison to the toxin. Additionally, the reactivity of MAb26 toward the toxoid forms increased when the tetanus toxin was detoxified using 8 mM and higher formaldehyde concentrations. The similarity of the tetanus toxoid to several sera proteins, either at the level of its conformation (IL-1a) or at the level of peptide sequences (b2GPI, laminin) favors its role in autoimmunity by the mechanism of molecular mimicry. As the induction of an autoimmune disease is dependent on the breakdown of tolerance, which could be the result of an overt hyperstimulation, the control of the presence and concentration of self-reactive epitopes in vaccine preparations is a prerequisite. In this study, it was shown that MAb26 can: 1) discriminate between the tetanus toxin and different toxoid forms, which makes it a good candidate for antibody control during vaccine preparation; 2) due to its cross-reactivity with b2GPI, it could provide information on the presence of a potentially dangerous sequential epitope expressed at the protein surface.

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