Across the globe, human security and peace building initiative have increasingly assumed prime policy priority necessary for good governance. In Nigeria, this reality has been more pronounced in successive regime failure to face adequately the recurrent Niger Delta challenges for at least the past three decades. This means that peace is neither built on a solid foundation nor has security been achieved. Using the Niger Delta region as a point of focus, the paper examined the interface between human security and peace building and brought to focus the challenges to human security and sustainable peace building in the region. The authors established the fact that human security in the region is predicated upon sustainable peace building and consolidation.