This study explores the Azerbaijan education system, particularly gifted education, its strengths and weaknesses during the Soviet regime and after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Further, the study discusses the nature and intent of current legislations, programs and practices regarding the education of gifted children in Azerbaijan. The study addresses the technique of textual analysis that was applied in analyzing and synthesizing the data that was collected from documents, official reports, books, peer-reviewed articles, ERIC tools, newspapers and journals. Findings indicate that there are serious problems with the Azerbaijan education system including the organization of schooling of gifted students. There is a lack of systematic effort for differentiated education catering to the needs of this population. Moreover, the lack of standards and measurements for the identification of gifted children is another essential issue which needs urgent solution.