In this study, using the immunofluorescent method, the immunopositive signals to ubiquitin and proteasomes in nucleoli of root meristematic cells of soybean seedlings have been observed. In fact, those signals were present exclusively in nucleolar vacuoles. No signals were observed in the nucleolar territory out of the nucleolar vacuoles or in the nucleoli without vacuoles. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) may act within the nucleoli of plants with high metabolic activities and may provide an additional level of regulation of intracellular proteolysis via compartment-specific activities of their components. It is suggested that the presence of the UPS solely in vacuolated nucleoli serves as a mechanism that enhances the speed of ribosome subunit production in very actively transcribing nucleoli. On the other hand, nucleolar vacuoles in a cell/nucleus could play additional roles associated with temporary sequestration or storage of some cellular factors, including components of the ubiquitin-proteasome system.