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Linkage of diagenesis to depositional environments and stratigraphy in the northern part of the Baltic basin

DOI: 10.3176/earth.2012.1.02

Keywords: siliciclastic rocks , dolomite cementation , diagenesis , stable isotopes , Devonian , Baltic basin.

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Abstract:

The spatial and temporal distribution of carbonate cementation was investigated in Devonian siliciclastic rocks of the northern part of the Baltic basin, using geochemical (oxygen and carbon stable isotope, microprobe and bulk chemical analyses), optical, scanning electron and cathodoluminescence microscope methods. Carbonate cementation in the studied rocks is dolomitic and only rarely calcitic. Dolomite cementation occurs as laterally persistent zones, lenses or concretionary forms. Carbonate-cemented beds are the most common at the level of the maximum flooding surface and within the regressive system tract sediments. Levels of concretionary cementation with dolocrete features possibly mark the position of subaerial unconformities. Interpretation of dolomite δ13C and δ18O values suggests marine and/or mixed marine-meteoric origin of diagenetic fluids. Marine origin of fluids is interpreted in the diagenetic alteration of siliciclastic interlayers in the Leivu and Kernave sequences that were cemented penecontemporaneously with early diagenetic dolomitization of carbonate rocks. The siliciclastic intervals of the Vadja Formation and partly of the Leivu Formation were cemented somewhat later with dolomite precipitated from mixed marine-meteoric pore water. Carbon isotopic values suggest that carbon was mainly derived from marine sources, except in the P rnu Formation where negative δ13C values of dolomite indicate that carbon was derived from oxidation of organic materials.

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