In-situ evaluation of pigeonpea cropping system andmanagement in Uganda and agro-morphologicalcharacterization of 29 pigeonpea landraces were studiedin 2001 and 2004/05, respectively. Results showed thatpigeonpea in Uganda is predominantly intercropped withfinger millet and to some extent with maize and sorghum.Farmers largely used saved grain as seed and appreciatedthe damage by insect pests, but only farmers in Apachand Lira districts practiced any form of pest control.Observations across the collection districts indicated lowlevels of Fusarium wilt disease. Agronomic evaluation ofthe 29 accessions revealed differential adaptation at thetwo test locations in Kenya with accessions expressing adelayed phenology at the cooler Kabete relative to thewarmer Kampi ya Mawe. Lower 100-seed weight wasreported at Kabete relative to Kampi ya Mawe possiblydue to excessive vegetative growth at Kabete. Clusteranalysis delineated the germplasm into four clusters allseparated from the adapted medium- and long-durationchecks. Although overall two distinct diversity groupswere observed separating the short, medium-maturingtypes from the tall late- and very late-maturing types, theseparation was relatively marginal suggesting a closergenetic relation between the Ugandan pigeonpeagermplasm. Relatively low diversity in qualitative traitswas observed in the accessions. The predominance ofaccessions with pubescent pods, a trait associated withresistance to pod damaging insects may provide anopportunity to identify materials for insect pest resistancefor use in breeding.