This paper presents a mathematical model to calculate transients in grounding systems. The derived equations arise from direct application of basic electromagnetic equations in frequency domain, whose solution is obtained by the application of the Moment Methods. A formulation based on experimental measurements is applied to quantify the soil parameters for each frequency. The unified approach is applied in the calculation of the grounding impedance of horizontal electrodes. Results show that the inclusion of frequency dependence of the soil parameters leads to a reduction of the values of grounding impedance, in comparison with results for soils with parameters independent of frequency.
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