This study investigates the effects of setting reading goals on the vocabulary retention of Iranian EFL readers. The aim is to find out which type of goals can be more influential on vocabulary retention. The population includes 120 students, 16 to 18 years old, and all female at Iranian junior high schools. Out of them 60 homogenized students were selected through administering one Nelson Proficiency Test (2001). They were divided to four groups of 15 students, three groups with different reading goals and a control group. After the treatment, a vocabulary post test was administered for all groups after two weeks. Then an ANOVA used to analyze the results of the tests. The results revealed that there was a significant difference between the groups with different goals and the control group. The findings suggested that setting reading goals has a positive effect on vocabulary retention of teaching and pleasure groups and negative effect on taking test group.