For the purpose of explaining the causes, consequences and mediating effects of burnout on relevant variables, the researcher conducted a cross-sectional survey of 371 hospital employees in Taiwan. Four principal findings are made. First, with respect to the three components of burnout experienced by hospital employees, the most frequently reported is emotional exhaustion, being also the most problematic among hospital employees compared with employees in other industries. Second, while increased workload coupled with role conflict increases the likelihood of burnout among hospital employees, improved work autonomy and social support reduce its likelihood. Next, the study finds a direct correlation between employees’ perceptions of low levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization and high levels of organizational commitment. In contrast, employees’ perceptions of high levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization lead to high turnover intention. Finally, the result of the hierarchical regression analysis demonstrates a partial mediating effect of burnout in the current study. These findings suggest the need for hospital management to improve their wellbeing and incentive strategies, to embark upon regular investigations into job burnout and to adopt appropriate measures to meet the professional development needs of hospital employees.