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Past, Present and Future of Lymphangiography

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History: Hippocrates was the first person who mentioned lymphatic system at 5th century BC. About 1563 Eustachi "an anatomy professor" discribed the thoracic duct in horses as "vena-alba thoracis" Rud beck (1630-1702) discovered vessels in the liver containing clear fluid which emptied to the thoracic duct and they have valves. Thomas Barthtolin said these vessels are present everywhere in the body not only within the liver and he named them "lymphatic vessels". "nToday: Taking x-ray of visualized lymphatic, lymph nodes, lymph ducts, lymph vessels and lymph capillaries using patent blue and lipiodol ultra-fluid is called lymphography. "nThis procedure was used for tumor staging such as testicular tumors, sarcoma and lymphoma. Also lymphography is used for post traumatic lymphatic obstruction, "chilothorax lymphocele" post surgical or congenital abnormalities such as agenesis or other causes of lymph-edema of the feet and hands. Nowadays staging is possible with US, CT and MRI so these days lymphography is used for lymph-edema only. "nMicro-magnetic resonance lymphangiography with GD-labeled dendrimer nanoparticle is used to identify intra lymphatic and extra lymphatic origins with pulse T1W 3D fast spoiled GRE T2/T1W 3D fast imaging employing steady state "3D-FIESTA-C.""nLecture notes for new lymphangiography are: "nInterstitial MR lymphangiography for the detection of sentinel lymph node. "nTo assess the morphology of the lymphatic system pre-and postoperatively in patients undergoing mi-crosurgical reconstructions of the lymphatic vessels."nValidation study of MR-lymphangiography using SPIO, a new lymphotropic super-para-magnetic nanoparitcle contrast in bladder cancer, GU cancer and prostate cancer by interventional method."nComplementary for MR-lymphangiography is CT and PET-CT "C-choline PET" in prostate cancer more accurate than MR."nHigh-resolution MR-lymphangiography in patients with primary and secondary lymphoma. Using GD as standard lymphangiography. "nImages from our conventional lymphangiography in past and images from new modalities and water imaging techniques are available to show.

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