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Evoked Potentials: Electrical Events Specific to Brain’s Receiving Sensory Input

Keywords: cognition , evoked potentials , event-related potential , cerebral cortex , Human brain

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This study aims to review the fundamental concept of the clinical testing modalities in Evoked Potentials (EPs) recording strategies. The article starts from the terminology of EPs which means the electrical events specific to the brain’s receiving sensory input from the outside e.g., visual, auditory, somatosensory. EPs is a method to tune-in to one specific part of the sensory neuraxis from a primary sensory receptor. There are basically two distinct approaches or strategies to recording EPs, depending on the focus of interest in nervous system malfunctioning. Basic characteristics of EPs include, (1) they are time-locked to the stimulus, (2) short-latency EPs especially are deterministic, stereotyped or characterized by having the same latency, amplitude, polarity and waveform every time and (3) longer-latency EPs are somewhat less deterministic especially as regards displaying more latency jitter or variability, as well as being more subject to state variations e.g., drowsiness, sleep or coma. This article then concludes the usual clinical testing modalities in EPs.


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