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Keywords: Biogenic amines , Histamine , Histamine Poisoning , Diamine Oxidase , Histamine Biosensor , Immobilization Methods in Constructing Histamine Biosensor

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Some biogenic amine like Histamine, cadaverine and putrescine have been confirmed as useful chemical indicators to estimate bacterial spoilage of foods, particularly fish and fish products, cheese, meat and fermented foods. Histamine is toxic at high intakes, while cadaverine and putrescine potentiate the effects of Histamine. Histamine has regulated level of 200 mg/kg (200 ppm). Basic principle involved in Biogenic amines biosensor is the action of diamine oxidase (DAO) that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of primary amines to the corresponding aldehydes, hydrogen peroxide and ammonia. Two different approaches for the histamine biosensor design were studied, i.e. the enzyme DAO was directly immobilized on the surface of the oxygen electrode membrane using glutaraldehyde or entrapped in a hydrogel film. In histamine biosensor consisting of diamine oxidase (DAO) and a conventional oxygen electrode transducer was developed and applied for the determination of standard histamine solutions. For immobilisation with glutaraldehyde, the enzyme was cross-linked with glutaraldehyde as a bifunctional reagent on the electrode surface. For entrapment, DAO was entrapped in a polymeric hydrogel film, i.e. poly(hydroxyl ethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) polymer and deposited onto the teflon membrane of the oxygen electrode. Good linear correlation response obtained of the histamine biosensors with immobilized DAO showed between the changes of oxygen level with changes in concentration of histamine at both high concentration ranges (200-1000 mg/L) and low concentrations (20-100 mg/L). However, the sensitivity of the biosensor response decreased at high concentration range of histamine, for the direct DAO immobilisation with glutaraldehyde. Biogenic amines concentration can be measured by monitoring either the decrease in oxygen or the increase of hydrogen peroxide concentration.


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