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Inicios de la microbiología enológica gallega

Keywords: Galicia , wine microbiology , CSIC , Theory of Ecolgical Wine , Galicia , microbiologia enológica , CSIC , Teoría Ecológica del Vino

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The Spanish Council for Scientific Research (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, CSIC) was created 70 years ago, and is considered the biggest research institution of Spain. The process of the institutionalization of Spanish ecology has been made in its dependences, during an important growing of Spanish microbiology and biotechnology. There is a bad known fact that a part of this effort were finally focused to the enology, giving the Ecological Wine Theory. The first studies made with this purpose about the Galician wine microbiology were carried out in the Institute of Industrial Fermentations (Instituto de Fermentaciones Industriales, IFI-CSIC) in the 70 decade, and were a part of the evidences taking into account to elaborate the Theory of Ecological Wine. The abusive employment of fungicides and sulphur compounds to control the microbiology of the winemaking was considered by this theory a practice that eliminate the possibility of growing of several yeast species to develop their metabolism to give desired sensorial characters to the wine. By this reason, the employment of selected and wild authochtonous yeast strains, isolated from Galician musts and wines and progressively inoculated, were recommended to avoid the use of the chemical compounds like sulphur dioxide and fungicides, and to preserve the typical Galician wine characteristics. Two scientific articles made in 70 decade are commented, and also the conclusions given by the authors in relation with the Theory of Ecological Wine, and with the situation of Spanish wine microbiology at this moment. The isolated yeast during these studies are conserved till now in the Dept. of Microbiology of the IFI-CSIC. Se cumplen 70 a os de la creación del Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), donde se llevó a cabo la institucionalización de la ecología y se dio un fuerte impulso a la investigación en microbiología y biotecnología. Es poco conocido que parte de este esfuerzo fue finalmente aplicado a la enología, cristalizando en la Teoría Ecológica del Vino. Los primeros estudios científicos de microbiología enológica gallega fueron realizados en el Departamento de Microbiología del Instituto de Fermentaciones Industriales del CSIC (IFI-CSIC) en la década de los 70, y formaron parte de las evidencias que sirvieron para establecer dicha teoría. Instalaciones inadecuadas, unidas al empleo masivo de fungicidas y sulfuroso como antisépticos, fueron identificados como posibles causas de los problemas detectados durante el estudio de la vinificación. Finalmente se recomendaría co


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