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New approach to modulate retinal cellular toxic effects of high glucose using marine epa and dha

DOI: 10.1186/1743-7075-8-39

Keywords: Glucose, Inflammation, Omega-3, Oxidative stress, Caveolin-1

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Abstract:

Retinal epithelial cells were incubated with omega-3 marine oils rich in EPA and DHA and then with high glucose (25 mM) for 48 hours. Cellular responses were compared to normal glucose (5 mM): intracellular redox status, reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial succinate deshydrogenase activity, inflammatory cytokines release and caveolin-1 expression were evaluated using microplate cytometry, ELISA and flow cytometry techniques. Fatty acids incorporation in retinal cell membranes was analysed using chromatography.Preincubation of the cells with fish oil decreased ROS overproduction, mitochondrial alterations and TNFα release. These protective effects could be attributed to an increase in caveolin-1 expression induced by marine oil.Marine formulations rich in omega-3 fatty acids represent a promising therapeutic approach for diabetic retinopathy.Diabetic retinopathy is the most common diabetic eye disease and a leading cause of blindness in adults. It is estimated that in 2002, diabetic retinopathy accounted for about 5% of world blindness, representing almost 5 million blind people [1].Sustained hyperglycemia appears to be the major contributor to the development of this multifactorial disease [2]. The hallmarks of diabetic retinopathy include blood-retinal barrier breakdown [3]. The retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells constitute the outer blood-retinal barrier. Oxidative stress plays a central role in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy [4-6]. In addition to oxidative stress, inflammation is implicated in diabetic retinopathy. Retinal leukostasis increases within days of developing diabetes and correlates with the increased expression of retinal intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and CD18 [7-9]. Therefore, antioxidants have been found to inhibit the development of inflammatory changes in retinas of diabetic animals [5]. Omega-3 fatty acids (mainly EPA and DHA) possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. They incorporate into retinal cell mem

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