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Hydrogenated fat diet intake during pregnancy and lactation modifies the PAI-1 gene expression in white adipose tissue of offspring in adult life

DOI: 10.1186/1476-511x-7-13

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Abstract:

Nutritional conditions during gestation have a major role in the metabolic and hormonal interactions between the maternal body, placenta, and fetus. The fetus growth is influenced by the maternal nutritional condition. Fetal insulin and insulin growth factor (IGF) have major roles in the regulation of growth, and respond rapidly to changes in fetal nutrition [1].During gestation, changes in the maternal metabolism occur in order to supply nutrition to the fetus. Lipids play a fundamental role in fetal development. Although lipids transfer through placenta is very limited, changes in dietary fatty acids can lead to implications in fetal and postnatal development [2].Metabolic programming occurs during the period of intra-uterus development. Inadequate nutritional and environmental factors may modify the fetal metabolic programming which could be reflected as deleterious consequences in adulthood, such as predisposition to develop cardiovascular and metabolic diseases [3-5].Albuquerque et al [6] suggest that the exposition to trans fatty acids (TFA) during gestation and lactation can have harmful consequences to the offspring in adulthood. The levels of TFA in maternal milk are directly correlated to the maternal diet during gestation and lactation [7].The chronic ingestion of hydrogenated vegetable fat rich in TFA and saturated fatty acids modifies the serum lipid profile, increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases, and reduces insulin sensitivity, leading to type 2 diabetes [8-10]. Also, Ibrahim et al [10] demonstrated that treatment with TFA has a much greater effect in decreasing adipocyte insulin sensitivity than treatment with saturated fatty acids. This result was in part explained by a reduction of plasma membrane fluidity in the rats treated with TFA.Increases in PAI-1 serum concentrations are related to insulin resistance [11,12] and the incidence of cardiovascular diseases in obesity [13-16].Several studies in the literature have reported decreased adipo

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