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The Comparison of Antagonistic Effects of Normal Vaginal Lactobacilli and Some Commonly used Antibiotics on Isolated Bacteria of Uterine Infections in Dairy Cows

Keywords: Agar spot test , antagonistic effects , lactic acid bacteria , probiotics , uterine infection

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Uterine infections are one of the major reproductive complications during postpartum. The antibiotics and antiseptic agents used in the treatment of postpartum infections have residues in food, induce bacterial resistance, increase the financial costs and cause failure in defense mechanism of host. On the other hand, nowadays the administration of probiotics is considered as an alternative method for the prevention and treatment of infections. Therefore, preventive treatment with probiotic product could decrease the usage of antibiotic and bring advantages in dairy farm systems. The objective of this study was screening of the antagonistic properties of isolated vaginal Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) against the most prevalent bacteria in uterine infections in order to investigate their probiotic potentials as an alternative approach for prevention of uterine infections. LAB were isolated from sampling of cranial part of vagina during estrus phase and luteal phase of Holstein dairy cattle and pathogens bacteria were isolated from merits and endometritis specimens which referred to our veterinary laboratory. The antagonistic activity of isolated LAB against uterine pathogens was tested by Agar spot test. Antibiotic susceptibilities of pathogenic strains to commonly used antibiotics were investigated by using disc diffusion method. Inhibition zones around both the probiotic spots and the antibiotic discs were classified to weak, moderate and strong categories and their antagonistic efficacies were compared. Isolated LAB had antagonistic effects against all the pathogenic strains including both gram negative and gram positive, Arcanobacterium pyogenes and Pseudomonas aeroginosa were the most sensitive bacteria (with 12.60 and 14 mm an average inhibition zone, respectively). LAB had the least antagonistic effects on Clostridium perfringens (3.6 mm of an average inhibition zone). Comparing the antagonistic efficacies, the percentages of overall susceptibility to the used probiotic and antibiotics (75 versus 49.7%, respectively) differ significantly (p<0.05). In conclusion, bovine vaginal lactic acid bacteria have different antagonistic characters against isolated pathogens and obtained inhibition zones vary from 0 to 18 mm. Regarding the findings of this study, Lactobacillus spp might be more efficient than or at least as much efficient as those of antibiotics in production of antagonistic effects against uterine infection pathogens. These results might be applied in future studies to design probiotic products to prevent uterine infections in postpartum dairy co


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