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Anti-inflammation effects of hydrogen saline in LPS activated macrophages and carrageenan induced paw oedema

DOI: 10.1186/1476-9255-9-2

Keywords: hydrogen saline, macrophages, TNF-α, anti-inflammation, carrageenan

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Carrageenan-induced paw oedema and LPS-activated macrophages are studied in this article. Injection of carrageenan into the foot of a mouse elicited an acute inflammatory response characterized by increase of foot volume and infiltration of neutrophils. While tumor necrosis factorα(TNF-α) secreted by activated macrophages was determined by ELISA and real-time PCR.All parameters of inflammation (foot volume, infiltration of neutrophils, amount of TNF-α and the level of TNF-α's mRNA) were attenuated by the hydrogen saline treatment.As a more convenient way than inhaling H2, hydrogen saline exhibits a protective effect against inflammation and it might provide a novel therapeutic approach for inflammatory diseases.Oxidative stress is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammation not only through direct injurious effects, but also by involvement in molecular mechanisms [1]. Among the complicated factors involved in the process of inflammation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), such as the hydroxyl radical (?OH), superoxide anion (O2-), hydrogen dioxide (H2O2), nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO-), appear to be critical elements. There is a large amount of evidence showing that the production of reactive species such as O2?-, H2O2, and ?OH occurs at the site of inflammation and contributes to tissue damage [2,3]. By using inhibitors of NOS, the severity of inflammation was reduced, which demonstrates the role of NO? in the pathogenesis associated with various models of inflammation [4-6]. In addition to NO?, ONOO- is also generated during inflammation damage [3,6]. The involvement of ONOO- in these conditions is strongly manifested by direct measurements. There is immunocytochemical documentation (increased nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity in the inflamed tissues) of augmented ONOO- production in many inflammation diseases, such as ileitis [7], endotoxin-induced intestinal inflammation [8] and arthritis[9]. Fu


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