Objective: To observe whether Naomai Yihao (NM) Capsule, a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine for regulating the "sea of blood in brain", and bone marrow stromal stem cell (BMSC) transplantation could improve angiogenesis in focal cerebral ischemia in rats.Methods: A rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was established. The rats were divided into untreated group, NM group, BMSC group and combination of NM and BMSC group (combined treatment group). Another 8 normal rats were selected as sham-operated group. After 3-, 7- and 14-day reperfusion, behavioral rating scale (BRS) of the rats and histopathology of the cerebral tissue were evaluated. Expression of CD31 in the brain tissue was also measured by immunohistochemical method.Results: Compared with the untreated group, BRSs of the NM group, BMSC group and combined treatment group were decreased significantly (P=0.000), but there was no interacting effect between NM and BMSC transplantation. Compared with the untreated group, the numbers of CD31 positive cells in NM group, BMSC group and combined treatment group were increased significantly (P=0.000), and there were interacting effects among NM, BMSC transplantation, and the observation time (P<0.01). After 14-day reperfusion, combination of NM and BMSC transplantation could largely increase the number of CD31 positive cells.Conclusion: NM is able to promote the angiogenesis and neurological impairment improvement in focal cerebral ischemia of rats which are administered with BMSC transplantation, and the effect is reinforced with the extension of treatment time.