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Role of carotenoid β-cryptoxanthin in bone homeostasis

DOI: 10.1186/1423-0127-19-36

Keywords: Carotenoid, β-cryptoxanthin, Osteoblastic bone formation, Osteoclastic bone resorption, Osteoporosis

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Abstract:

Bone is a dynamic tissue that preserves skeletal size, shape, and structural integrity and to regulate mineral homeostasis. Bone homeostasis is maintained through a balance between osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption. Aging and numerous pathological processes induce decrease in bone formation and increase in bone resorption, leading to osteoporosis, a devastating bone disease [1]. Osteoporosis, which is induced with decrease in bone mass, is widely recognized as a major public health problem [1]. The most dramatic expression of the disease is represented by fractures of the proximal femur for which the number increases as the population ages [2].Nutritional factors may have the potential effect to prevent bone loss with increasing age. There is growing evidence that the supplementation of nutritional and food factors may have the preventive effect on bone loss that is induced in animal model of osteoporosis and in human subjects [3-6]. Chemical compounds in food and plants, which regulate on bone homeostasis, have been to be worthy of notice in maintaining of bone health and prevention of bone loss with increasing age [7-13].Carotenoids (carotene and xanthophyll) are present in fruit and vegetables. Carotenoids, which are a provitamin A, may have an anabolic effect on bone metabolism. Vitamin A (retinol, retinal, and retinoic acid), which is formed from carotenoids in animal and human, has been shown to have a role in the regulation of bone cells and it may have an anabolic effect on bone [14-16]. However, vitamin A is also known to have a detrimental effect on bone at high doses [17-20]. In laboratory animals, high levels of vitamin A lead to accelerated bone resorption, bone fractures, and osteoporotic bone lesions [17].Beta (β)-cryptoxanthin, a kind of xanthophyll, is abundant in Satsuma mandarin orange (Citrus unshiu MARC.). Of various carotenoids, β-cryptoxanthin has been found to have a potential-anabolic effect on bone due to stimulat

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