The medieval art in the Pyrenean area sets an essential grounding for the identitat catalana. Its opening up and scientific processing was conjugated with romantic transfiguration, ideological monopolisation and tourist marketing. Elies Rogent’s restoration campaigns, the scientist and politician Josep Puig i Cadafalch’s research and publications as well as the destiny of frescos from numerous village churches prove the various periods of a continuous process. Almost 30 years after Franco’s death the Catalan nation rightly claims other, more recent autochthonous achievements. However, the Pyrenees’ cultural role within a Europe that is in the process of redefining itself remains to be written.