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Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia: clinical and microbiological epidemiology in a health area of Southern Spain

DOI: 10.4081/idr.2012.e29

Keywords: Streptococcus pneumoniae , bacteremia , risk factors , antibiotic susceptibility , epidemiology , serotypes

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Abstract:

Streptococcus pneumoniae remains an important cause of bacteremia worldwide. Last years, a decrease of S. pneumoniae penicillin-resistant isolates has been observed. The objective of this study was to describe the episodes of bacteremia due to S. pneumoniae during a period of 11 years. Epidemiological and clinical data, serotypes causing bacteremia, antibiotic susceptibility and prognosis factors were studied. Over a period of 11 years, all the episodes of S. pneumoniae bacteremia were analysed. Their clinical and microbiological features were recorded. Statistical analysis was carried out to determine risk factors for pneumococcal bacteremia and predictors of fatal outcome. Finally, 67 S. pneumoniae bacteremia episodes were included in this study. The majority of cases were produced in white men in the middle age of their life. The main predisposing factors observed were smoking, antimicrobial and/or corticosteroids administration, chronic pulmonary obstructive disease and HIV infection, and the most common source of bacteremia was the low respiratory tract. The main serotypes found were 19A, 1, 14 and 7F. Seventy-seven percent of these isolates were penicillin-susceptible, and the mortality in this serie was really low. Statistical significance was observed between age, sex and race factors and the presence of bacteremia, and there was relationship between the patient’s condition and the outcome. In our study, S. pneumoniae bacteremia is mainly from community-acquired origin mainly caused in men in the median age of the life. 40% of bacteremias were caused by serotypes 19A, 1, 7F and 14. During the period of study the incidence of bacteremia was stable and the mortality rate was very low.

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