The study was carried out in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients from the local Tuberculosis control programme, Mumbai, India. It examined features of chest X-rays and their correlation with clinical parameters for possible application in suspected multidrug resistant TB (MDRTB) and to predict outcome in new and treatment failure PTB cases. X-ray features (infiltrate, cavitation, miliary shadows, pleural effusion, mediastinal lymphadenopathy and extent of lesions) were analyzed to identify associations with biological/clinical parameters through univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Failures demonstrated associations between extensive lesions and high glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb) levels (P=0.028) and male gender (P=0.03). An association was also detected between cavitation and MDR (P=0.048). In new cases, bilateral cavities were associated with MDR (P=0.018) and male gender (P=0.01), low body mass index with infiltrates (P=0.008), and smoking with cavitation (P=0.0238). Strains belonging to the Manu1 spoligotype were associated with mild lesions (P=0.002). Poor outcome showed borderline significance with extensive lesions at onset (P=0.053). Furthermore, amongst new cases, smoking, the Central Asian Strain (CAS) spoligotype and high GHb were associated with cavitation, whereas only CAS spoligotypes and high GHb were associated with extensive lesions. The study highlighted associations between certain clinical parameters and X-ray evidence which support the potential of X-rays to predict TB, MDRTB and poor outcome. The use of Xrays as an additional tool to shorten diagnostic delay and shortlist MDR suspects amongst nonresponders to TB treatment should be explored in a setting with limited resources coping with a high MDR case load such as Mumbai.