All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Cigarette Smoke, Bacteria, Mold, Microbial Toxins, and Chronic Lung Inflammation

DOI: 10.1155/2011/819129

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


Chronic inflammation associated with cigarette smoke fosters malignant transformation and tumor cell proliferation and promotes certain nonneoplastic pulmonary diseases. The question arises as to whether chronic inflammation and/or colonization of the airway can be attributed, at least in part, to tobacco-associated microbes (bacteria, fungi, and spores) and/or microbial toxins (endotoxins and mycotoxins) in tobacco. To address this question, a literature search of documents in various databases was performed. The databases included PubMed, Legacy Tobacco Documents Library, and US Patents. This investigation documents that tobacco companies have identified and quantified bacteria, fungi, and microbial toxins at harvest, throughout fermentation, and during storage. Also characterized was the microbial flora of diverse smoking and smokeless tobacco articles. Evidence-based health concerns expressed in investigations of microbes and microbial toxins in cigarettes, cigarette smoke, and smokeless tobacco products are reasonable; they warrant review by regulatory authorities and, if necessary, additional investigation to address scientific gaps. 1. Introduction: Chemical and Biological Components of Tobacco and Smoke For many years, scientists have undertaken studies to define the chemical composition of green tobacco leaf, cured-fermented-stored tobacco leaf, and tobacco smoke with the intent of identifying chemicals that may pose a significant health risk [1–4]. An illustration has been prepared of the annual increase, from 1954 to 2005, in the total number of tobacco smoke chemicals that have been identified [4]. Today, there is a consensus of opinion that cigarette smoke consists of at least 5,300 different chemicals [4]. These chemicals are present in the complex aerosol that consists of a heterogeneous mixture of gas- (vapor-) phase and particulate- (“tar-”) phase components [1–4]. Detailed listings of the chemicals in mainstream and sidestream tobacco smoke are available, and an assessment of their propensity for harm has been presented; a partial listing of references is included [1–4]. Most of the chemicals, toxicants, and carcinogens in tobacco smoke arise from the burning (pyrolysis) of the tobacco [1, 2, 4]. The potential for harm has also been studied for chemicals that do not arise from the burning of tobacco. The chemicals include metallic and nonmetallic elements, isotopes, and salts [1, 2, 4]. In addition, pesticides and other intact agrochemicals have been identified in tobacco smoke [1, 2, 4]. Also included in this tabulation of chemicals


[1]  M. Borgerding and H. Klus, “Analysis of complex mixtures—cigarette smoke,” Experimental Toxicology and Pathology, vol. 57, supplement 1, pp. 43–73, 2005.
[2]  R. R. Baker, “Smoke chemistry,” in TOBACCO: Production, Chemistry and Technology, D. Layten Davis and M. T. Nielsen, Eds., charter 12, pp. 398–439, Blackwell Science, 2003.
[3]  S. S. Hecht, “Cigarette smoking: cancer risks, carcinogens, and mechanisms,” Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery, vol. 391, no. 6, pp. 603–613, 2006.
[4]  A. Rodgman and T. A. Perfetti, The Chemical Components of Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke, CCRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 2009.
[5]  D. Hoffmann and I. Hoffmann, “The changing cigarette, 1950–1995,” Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health A, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 307–364, 1997.
[6]  G. F. Wayne and G. N. Connolly, “Regulatory assessment of brand changes in the commercial tobacco product market,” Tobacco Control, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 302–309, 2009.
[7]  D. M. Burns and C. M. Anderson, “Do changes in cigarette design influence the rise in adenocarcinoma of the lung?” Cancer Causes Control, vol. 22, pp. 13–22, 2011.
[8]  R. J. O'Connor, K. M. Cummings, V. W. Rees et al., “Surveillance methods for identifying, characterizing, and monitoring tobacco products: potential reduced exposure products as an example,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 3334–3348, 2009.
[9]  D. K. Hatsukami, K. A. Perkins, M. G. LeSage, et al., “Nicotine reduction revisited: science and future directions,” Tobacco Control, vol. 19, no. e1, pp. 1–10, 2010.
[10]  H. Ito, K. Matsuo, H. Tanaka, et al., “Nonfilter and filter cigarette consumption and the incidence of lung cancer by histological type in Japan and the United States: analysis of 30-year data from population-based cancer registries,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 128, no. 8, pp. 1918–1928, 2011.
[11]  M. Rabinoff, N. Caskey, A. Rissling, and C. Park, “Pharmacological and chemical effects of cigarette additives,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 97, no. 11, pp. 1981–1991, 2007.
[12]  Brown & Williamson, “Commonly added ingredients,” 1982, Bates Number 521057548/7553. Retrieved on February 22. 2011 from
[13]  A Report of the Surgeon General, “How tobacco smoke causes disease. The biology and behavior basis for smoking-attributable disease,” U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA; Office on Smoking and Health, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402, 704 pgs, 2010.
[14]  A. M. Bromnawell, Reports of the Life Science Research Office (LSRO), Bethesda, MD, Volume I. Biological effects assessment in the evaluation of potential reduced-risk tobacco products, 242 pages; Volume II. Scientific methods to evaluate potential reduced-risk tobacco products, 174 pages; and Volume III. Exposure assessment in the evaluation of potential reduced-risk tobacco products, 170 pages, 2007.
[15]  L. P. Carter, M. L. Stitzer, J. E. Henningfield, R. J. O'Connor, K. M. Cummings, and D. K. Hatsukam, “Review: abuse liability assessment of tobacco products including potential reduced exposure products,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 3241–3262, 2009.
[16]  J. Beherns, “Die beziehungen der microorganisms zum tabaksbau and zur tabakferntation,” Zentrabl Bakteriol Parasitenk, Abt II, vol. 2, pp. 514–527, 1896.
[17]  Anonymous, “Tobacco and bacteria,” The London Globe, pp. 7, July 21, 1899. Retrieved on November 11, 2010 from
[18]  H. Okino, W. C. Squires, and R. J. Reynolds, “Microbial degradation of nicotine and nicotinic acid. Part I, Isolation of nicotine decomposing bacteria and their morphological and physiological properties,” 1954. Bates number 508893294/3298. Retrieved on June 24, 2011 from
[19]  A. Wiernik, A. Christakopoulos, L. Johansson, and I. Wahlberg, “Effect of air-curing on the chemical composition of tobacco,” Recent Advances in Tobacco Science, vol. 21, pp. 39–80, 1955.
[20]  H. P. Dygert, “Snuff-a source of pathogenic bacteria in chronic bronchitis,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 257, no. 7, pp. 311–313, 1957.
[21]  W. K. Farr and A. Revere, Examination of Whole Cigarette Smoke by Light and Electron Microscopy, Life Extension Foundation, New York, NY, USA, 1958.
[22]  W. K. Farr and A. Revere, “Examination of whole cigarette smoke by light and electron microscopy,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 172, no. 4, p. 405, 1960.
[23]  J. Forgacs and W. T. Carll, “Mycotoxicoses: toxic fungi in tobaccos,” Science, vol. 152, no. 3729, pp. 1634–1635, 1966.
[24]  W. A. Curby, “A preliminary study of the biological activity in cigarette smoke,” 1967, Bates Number 11330877-0905. Retrieved on March 23, 2011 from
[25]  W. A. Curby, “A preliminary study of the biological activity in cigarette smoke—part II,” 1967, Bates Number 11330942-0973. Retrieved on March 23, 2011 from
[26]  R. E. Welty, “Fungi isolated from flue-cured tobacco sold in Southeast United States, 1968–1970,” Applied Microbiology, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 518–520, 1972.
[27]  T. G. Mitchell and British-American Tobacco Company, “Microbiological examination of tobacco products: report Number RD 969-R,” 1972, Bates number 105501740/1767. Retrieved on June 28, 2010 from
[28]  P. C. Stauber and British American Tobacco Company, “Microbiology of Henri Wintermans cigar production on-site studies of the primary process at Eersel: report No. RD 925R,” 1972, Bates number 107466852/6877. Retrieved on June 28, 2010 from
[29]  T. G. Mitchell and P. C. Stauber, “Methods for the microbiological examination of tobacco and tobacco products, Report Number 888—R,” 1972, Bates number 105597063/7412. Retrieved on July 22, 2010 from
[30]  Smoke Study Group, “CORESTA—Papers presented at the Kallithea Symposium,” 1991, Bates number 2021551986/2194. Retrieved on July 27, 2010 from
[31]  I. Rubinstein and G. W. Pederson, “Bacillus species are present in chewing tobacco sold in the United States and evoke plasma exudation from the oral mucosa,” Clinical Diagnostics Laboratory and Immunology, vol. 9, pp. 1057–1060, 1992.
[32]  R. L. Barnes and S. A. Glantz, “Endotoxins in tobacco smoke: shifting tobacco industry positions,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research, vol. 9, no. 10, pp. 995–1004, 2007.
[33]  A. Morin, F. Samson, A. Porter, and J. Torrie, “Development of an easy to-search database on the microbes associated with tobacco,” 1990 Bates number 620693477/3480. Retrieved on Nov. 8, 2010 from
[34]  J. D. Hasday, R. Bascom, J. J. Costa, T. Fitzgerald, and W. Dubin, “Bacterial endotoxin is an active component of cigarette smoke,” Chest, vol. 115, no. 3, pp. 829–835, 1999.
[35]  K. S. Lane, “Method and system for assay and removal of harmful toxins during processing of tobacco products,” US patent 6,786,221. September 7, 2004.
[36]  L. Larsson, B. Szponar, and C. Pehrson, “Tobacco smoking increases dramatically air concentrations of endotoxin,” Indoor Air, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 421–424, 2004.
[37]  W. P. Hempling, G. H. Bokelman, and M. Shulleeta, “Method for reduction of tobacco specific nitrosamines,” US patent 6,755,200, June 29, 2004.
[38]  A. P. Rooney, J. L. Swezey, D. T. Wicklow, and M. J. McAtee, “Bacterial species diversity in cigarettes linked to an investigation of severe pneumonitis in U.S. military personnel deployed in Operation Iraqi Freedom,” Current Microbiology, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 46–52, 2005.
[39]  A. Sebastian, C. Pehrson, and L. Larsson, “Elevated concentrations of endotoxin in indoor air due to cigarette smoking,” Journal of Environmental Monitoring, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 519–522, 2006.
[40]  M. Zhao, B. Wang, F. Li et al., “Analysis of bacterial communities on aging flue-cured tobacco leaves by 16S rDNA PCR-DGGE technology,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 73, no. 6, pp. 1435–1440, 2007.
[41]  L. Larsson, B. Szponar, B. Ridha, et al., “Identification of bacterial and fungal components in tobacco and tobacco smoke,” Tobacco Induced Diseases, vol. 4, no. 4, 2008.
[42]  J. L. Pauly, J. D. Waight, and G. M. Paszkiewicz, “Tobacco flakes on cigarette filters grow bacteria: a potential health risk to the smoker?” Tobacco Control, vol. 17, supplement 1, pp. i49–i52, 2008.
[43]  J. Yang, J. Yang, Y. Duan, et al., “Bacterial diversities on unaged and aging flue-cured tobacco leaves estimated by 16S rRNA sequence analysis,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 88, pp. 553–562, 2010.
[44]  L. M. Coussens and Z. Werb, “Inflammation and cancer,” Nature, vol. 420, no. 6917, pp. 860–867, 2002.
[45]  O. Takeuchi and S. Akira, “Pattern recognition receptors and inflammation,” Cell, vol. 140, no. 6, pp. 805–820, 2010.
[46]  M. Karin, T. Lawrence, and V. Nizet, “Innate immunity gone awry: linking microbial infections to chronic inflammation and cancer,” Cell, vol. 124, no. 4, pp. 823–835, 2006.
[47]  C. Nathan and A. Ding, “Nonresolving inflammation,” Cell, vol. 140, no. 6, pp. 871–882, 2010.
[48]  N. Azad, Y. Rojanasakul, and V. Vallyathan, “Inflammation and lung cancer: roles of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species,” Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health B, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 1–15, 2008.
[49]  L. Zitvogel, O. Kepp, and G. Kroemer, “Decoding cell death signals in inflammation and immunity,” Cell, vol. 140, no. 6, pp. 798–804, 2010.
[50]  K. E. de Visser and L. M. Coussens, “The inflammatory tumor microenvironment and its impact on cancer development,” Contributions to Microbiology, vol. 13, pp. 118–137, 2006.
[51]  J. K. Kundu and Y. J. Surh, “Inflammation: gearing the journey to cancer,” Mutation Research, vol. 659, no. 1-2, pp. 15–30, 2008.
[52]  E. A. Engles, “Inflammation in the development of lung cancer: epidemiological evidence,” Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 605–615, 2008.
[53]  A. I. D'hulst, K. Y. Vermaelen, G. G. Brusselle, G. F. Joos, and R. A. Pauwels, “Time course of cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary inflammation in mice,” European Respiratory Journal, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 204–213, 2005.
[54]  C. Smith, T. Perfetti, and J. King, “Perspectives on pulmonary inflammation and lung cancer risk in cigarette smokers,” Inhalation Toxicology, vol. 18, no. 9, pp. 667–677, 2006.
[55]  H. Van Der Vaart, D. S. Postma, W. Timens, and N. H. T. Ten Hacken, “Acute effects of cigarette smoke on inflammation and oxidative stress: a review,” Thorax, vol. 59, no. 8, pp. 713–721, 2004.
[56]  M. A. Birrell, S. Wong, M. C. Catley, and M. G. Belvisi, “Impact of tobacco-smoke on key signaling pathways in the innate immune response in lung macrophages,” Journal of Cellular Physiology, vol. 214, no. 1, pp. 27–37, 2008.
[57]  L. Sorokin, “The impact of the extracellular matrix on inflammation,” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 10, no. 10, pp. 712–723, 2010.
[58]  W. Huvenne, C. A. Pérez-Novo, L. Derycke, et al., “Different regulation of cigarette smoke induced inflammation in upper versus lower airways,” Respiratory Research, vol. 11, no. 110, pp. 1–9, 2010.
[59]  G. S. Kulkarni, P. P. Nadkarni, J. M. Cerreta, S. Ma, and J. O. Cantor, “Short-term cigarette smoke exposure potentiates endotoxin-induced pulmonary inflammation,” Experimental Lung Research, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 1–13, 2007.
[60]  E. Doz, N. Noulin, E. Boichot et al., “Cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary inflammation is TLR4/MyD88 and IL-1R1/MyD88 signaling dependent,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 180, no. 2, pp. 1169–1178, 2008.
[61]  M. R. St?mpfli and G. P. Anderson, “How cigarette smoke skews immune responses to promote infection, lung disease and cancer,” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 377–384, 2009.
[62]  H. Mehta, K. Nazzal, and R. T. Sadikot, “Cigarette smoking and innate immunity,” Inflammation Research, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 497–503, 2008.
[63]  M. Sopori, “Effects of cigarette smoke on the immune system,” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 372–377, 2002.
[64]  J. Domagala-Kulawik, “Effects of cigarette smoke on the lung and systemic immunity,” Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, vol. 59, no. 6, pp. 19–34, 2008.
[65]  D. G. Yanbaeva, M. A. Dentener, E. C. Creutzberg, G. Wesseling, and E. F. M. Wouters, “Systemic effects of smoking,” Chest, vol. 131, no. 5, pp. 1557–1566, 2007.
[66]  D. Wood, “British-American Tobacco Company,” Preliminary observations on the possible transfer of viable micro-organisms to mainstream smoke, 1968, Bates number 570343882/3901. Retrieved on June 24, 2011 from
[67]  J. Forgacs, Good Samaritan Hospital, Suffern, NY to Dr. Robert C. Hockett, Council for Tobacco Research, New York, NY, 2 pages, 2010,
[68]  J. Forgacs, “Mycotoxicoses: the neglected diseases,” Feedstuffs, vol. 36, no. 18, pp. 124–134, 1966.
[69]  B. Slutzker, G. Harmon, and P. Edmonds, “Microbiological content of tobacco smoke,” The American Journal of the Medical Sciences, vol. 243, pp. 196–201, 1962.
[70]  J. M. Greene and S. Caldwell, “Chemical and microbiological changes during flue curing of NK-149 tobacco,” 1989, R. J. Reynolds, Bates number 514848867/8887, retrieved on June 30, 2010 from
[71]  Anonymous, Brown & Williamson, “Package 13.0 microbiology,” No date. Bates number 620648956/9146. Retrieved on June 28, 2010 from
[72]  Anonymous, British American Tobacco, “Master RD 888-R,” Bates number 105597011/7062. Retrieved on December 11, 2009 from 37a99.
[73]  C. W. Bacon, R. Wenger, and J. F. Bullock, “Chemical changes in tobacco during flu-curing,” Industrial & Engineering Chemistry, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 292–296, 1952.
[74]  C. O. Jensen, “Uber die natur der tabakfermentation,” Zentrabl Bakteriol Parasitenk, Abt II, vol. 21, pp. 469–483, 1908.
[75]  W. P. Hempling and P. Morris, “Fundamental tobacco microbiology,” 1987. Bates number 2022226783/6795. Retrieved on March 24, 2010 from
[76]  K. J. Brotzge and Brown and Williamson Tobacco Company, Quantities of microflora recovered from Brown & Williamson & competitive cigarette brands, Fall/Winter, 1982, 1983. Bates number 598000442/0451. Retrieved on March 16, 2010 from
[77]  K. J. Brotzge and Brown & Williamson Tobacco Company, “Quantities of microflora recovered from Brown & Williamson and competitive brands, Spring/Summer 830000,” 1983, Bates number 657017733/7752. Retrieved on March 16, 2010 from
[78]  L. J. Dewey and G. M. Broaddus, “Bacterial, mold and yeast population counts on RCFS and on RC picked from Pall Mall and Winston cigarettes,” 1970, American Tobacco Company, Bates number 950107079/7080, Retrieved on March 16, 2010 from
[79]  J. Hill and Brown & Williamson, “Microflora standards of cocoa casing materials,” 1985. Bates number 62018442/4422. Retrieved on March 17, 2010 from
[80]  M. I. Hofer and Philip Morris, “Research and development—quarterly Report Microbiology 851000/1200,” 1985, Bates number 2028639252/9269. Retrieved on November 8, 2010 from
[81]  Philip Morris, “Biocontrol of tobacco microflora,” 1989, Bates number 2029139024/9050, retrieved on June 30, 2010 from
[82]  R. E. Welty and American Tobacco, “Plant pathology, 5225, microflora of flue-cured tobacco and their affect on quality,” 1970, Bates number 950251672/1675. Retrieved on June 30, 2010 from
[83]  Anonymous and Philip Morris, “Most populous bacteria: burley tobacco research,” 1999, Bates number 2082730005. Retrieved on March 19, 2010 from
[84]  Anonymous, “Further examination of coliform bacteria from cigarettes,” Laboratory report L.337-R. 1970, Bates number 650018029/8046. Retrieved on June 24, 2010 from
[85]  M. Di Giacomo, M. Paolino, D. Silvestro et al., “Microbial community structure and dynamics of dark fire-cured tobacco fermentation,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 73, no. 3, pp. 825–837, 2007.
[86]  T. G. Mitchell and British American Tobacco (BAT), “Changes in the microflora of tobacco leaves during field growth in England,” 1989, Bates number 400047269/7282, retrieved on June 28, 2010 from
[87]  S. A. Ghabrial, “Studies on the microflora of air-cured burly tobacco,” Tobacco Science, vol. 20, pp. 80–82, 1976.
[88]  British American Tobacco, “Film Box Number -1, L1R to L151 R, R&D 1838,” Bates number 402185400/5586, Retrieved on June 24, 2010 from
[89]  W. C. Squires, L. E. Hayes, and R. J. Reynolds, “Tobacco flora: quantitative studies,” November 9, 1961. 125 pages/ Retrieved on October 27, 2010 from
[90]  V. Subbiah, “Sheet2. Tobacco sampling for microflora counting,” 1995. Bates number 525450330/0335. Retrieved on October 22, 2010 from
[91]  W. C. Flanders, R. J. Reynolds, “Quantitative studies of the microbiological flora of tobacco during aging,” 1955. Bates number 501663388/3456. Retrieved on July 1, 2010 from
[92]  P. C. Stauber, “Investigation of mould growth on stored leaf,” 1975. Bates number 105425004/5072. Retrieved on June 24, 2011 from
[93]  R. E. Welty and L. A. Nelson, “Growth of aspergillus repens in flue-cured tobacco,” Applied Microbiology, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 854–859, 1971.
[94]  T. G. Mitchell, D. A. Johnson, and British-American Tobacco Company, “Identification of fungi of the Aspergillus flavour group from tobacco,” Report RD 1279. 1975. Bates number 105598328/8619. Retrieved on July 1, 2010 from http://library/ucsf/edu/tid/pnp57a99.
[95]  G. M. Myers, “Aflatoxin on tobacco and its removal,” R. J. Reynolds, Bates number 519972600/2620. Retrieved on June 29, 2010 from
[96]  J. M. Greene and S. Caldwell, “Chemical and microbiological changes during flue curing of NK-149 tobacco,” 1989, R. J. Reynolds, Bates number514848867/8887, Retrieved on June 30, 2010 from
[97]  D. G. Vickroy and R. E. Welty, “Evaluations of cigarettes made with mold-damaged and nondamaged flue-cured tobacco,” Beitr?ge zur Tabakforschung, vol. 8, pp. 102–106, 1975.
[98]  M. R. Tansey, “Isolation of thermophilic fungi from snuff,” Journal of Applied Microbiology, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 128–129, 1975.
[99]  T. Thomas, J. Brandon, W. A. Bailey, and T. A. Kosty, “Method for reducing nitrosamines in tobacco,” US patent 7,757,697. July 20, 2010.
[100]  A. Lukic, R. E. Welty, and G. B. Lucas, “Antifungal spectra of actinomycetes isolated from tobacco,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 363–366, 1972.
[101]  K. Koga, S. Katsuya, and Japan Tobacco Company, “Method of reducing nitrosamines content in tobacco leaves,” US ptent 7,556,046. July 7, 2009.
[102]  M. Cui, M. T. Nielsen, R. R. Hart III, M. L. Overbey, D. J. Watson, and J. R. Chipley, “Use of chlorate, sulfur or ozone to reduce tobacco specific nitrosamine,” U.S. patent 2006/019516 A1. Sept 7, 2006.
[103]  R. G. Warke, A. S. Kamat, and M. Y. Kamat, “Irradiation of chewable tobacco mixes for improvement in microbiological quality,” Journal of Food Protection, vol. 62, no. 6, pp. 678–681, 1999.
[104]  T. G. Mitchell and C. R. Jenkins, “Alternative treatments for mould control on pipe tobacco,” British American Tobacco, Bates number 400661432/1433. Retrieved on June 24, 2011 from
[105]  D. S. Roth, W. H. Cowart Jr., C. B. Jenkins Jr., and D. M. Boyle, “Sterilization process in the manufacturing of snuff,” U.S. patent 5,372,149. December 13, 1994.
[106]  V. Subbiah, “Method of inhibiting mycotoxin production,” US Patent 5,698,599. Dec 16, 1997.
[107]  R. P. Newton and Brown & Williamson, “Microbiological examination of cigarettes,” 1968. Retrieved on June 28, 2010 from
[108]  V. C. Johnson, A. M. Palmer, and P. Morris, “Bacteria on cigarette filters,” Bates number 2000759148. February 12, 1968. Retrieved on November 9, 2010 from
[109]  T. G. Mitchell and British-American Tobacco Company, “Examination of mould—Affected cigarettes from China,” 1989, Bates number 400910779/7783. Retrieved on June 24, 2010 from Legacy at
[110]  J. Hill and Brown & Williamson, “Microbial examination of pipe and smokeless tobacco/541,” 1985, Bates number 620184560/4571. Retrieved on July 22, 2010 from
[111]  K. Brotzge and Brown & Williamson, “Microbial examination of pipe, snuff, & chewing tobacco products—Fall/Winter, 83000,” 1984, Bates number 598002147/2156. Retrieved on June 24, 2011 from
[112]  S. K. Varma, A. B. Roy, and A. K. Jha, “Ecotoxicological aspects of Aspergilli present in the phylloplane of shored leaves of chewing tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum),” Mycopathologia, vol. 113, pp. 19–23, 1991.
[113]  A. R. Sapkota, S. Berger, and T. M. Vogel, “Human pathogens abundant in the bacterial metagenome of cigarettes,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 118, no. 3, pp. 351–356, 2010.
[114]  J. Papavassiliou, G. Piperakis, and U. Marcelou-Kinti, “Mycological flora of cigarettes,” Mycopathology Mycology Applied, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 117–120, 1971.
[115]  V. P. Kurup, A. Resnick, S. L. Kagen, S. H. Cohen, and J. N. Fink, “Allergenic fungi and actinomycetes in smoking materials and their health implications,” Mycopathologica, vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 61–64, 1983.
[116]  P. E. Verweij, J. J. Kerremans, A. Voss, and J. F. G. M. Meis, “Fungal contamination of tobacco and marijuana,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 284, no. 22, p. 2875, 2000.
[117]  N. B. Rainer, “Cigarettes having minimized loose ends and process for preparing same,” US patent 4,715,388, Dec 29, 1987.
[118]  British American Tobacco Company, “Discussion group on ends quality,” 1985, 161 pages,
[119]  L. Deyton, J. Sharfstein, and M. Hamburg, “Tobacco product regulation—a public health approach,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 362, no. 19, pp. 1753–1756, 2010.


comments powered by Disqus