Circumcision is one of the oldest and the most controversial surgical procedures performed worldwide and is almost universal among Muslim and Jewish men. Most medical institutions in various countries agree that although there may be health benefits, there is no medical justification for routine circumcision in neonates or children. It should be performed only for established medical reasons and should not be universally recommended. There are modern techniques that provide safer, simpler, quicker, and cheaper alternatives to the traditional means of circumcision with good functional and cosmetic results. Female genital mutilation (FGM) includes procedure that alters or injures female genital organs for nonmedical reasons. Various degrees of FGM are prevalent, the most mutilating one being infibulation. There are numerous gynecologic and obstetrical complications with infibulation. FGM also plays a significant role in facilitating the transmission of HIV infection through numerous mechanisms. Health care providers have an important role to play in the eradication of this practice. Increased professional and public awareness about such a practice is required.