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An Indian perspective on primary angle closure and glaucoma

Keywords: Primary angle closure , glaucoma , India , primary angle closure glaucoma , primary angle closure disease

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Abstract:

Aim: To provide a synopsis of primary angle closure disease in India, and Indian studies on the same. Results: Primary angle closure glaucoma forms almost half of all adult primary glaucomas seen in a hospital setting in India. Anatomically, corneal diameters and anterior chamber depths were least in acute and chronic PACG eyes as compared to subacute eyes and controls. Besides relative pupillary block, a Valsalva maneuver during activities of daily living may be responsible for intermittent angle closure and raised IOP in predisposed eyes. Iridotomy alone, controlled the intraocular pressure in 66.7% of subacute eyes and 12.9% of the acute. Medical therapy was additionally required for 35.5% of the acute eyes, 12.1% of the subacute and 30.0% of the chronic cases. There was a greater mean and peak IOP reduction, achieved with 0.005% latanoprost once daily, 8.2 ± 2.0 mm Hg, compared with 0.5% timolol twice daily, 6.1 ± 1.7 mm Hg2. A progression of PACS to PAC was seen in 22%, PAC to PAC OHT in 38.7% and PAC OHT to PACG in 30.7% over 5 years. Conclusions: Primary angle closure disease is common in India, and can be managed well with iridotomy, followed by an appropriate control of IOP.

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