Objectives: to analyze publications involving communication between parents and children about issues related to sexuality in the databases MEDLINE, BDENF E LILACS of the Virtual Health Library - VHL from 2004 to 2009. Methods: systematic literature review study, held in VHL, in May 2009, from descriptors: communication, adolescent and sexuality. For the analysis of information, there was the organization of content as thematic categories present in the publications. Results: the 20 references were analyzed, and 12 in the database MEDLINE, five in LILACS and three in BDENF. The results show the family as a reference in the communication and identify the mother, as the main mediator of the dialogue with the children. In studies, it emphasizes the need for educational strategies that strengthen parents, as young people who enjoy communication in the family, tend to experience sexual health in a more healthy and pleasant. Conclusion: place new strategies/experiences in the sexual and reproductive behavior from family relationships promote the understanding of health and quality of life. The nurse must strengthen the social support network of adolescents and actions for health promotion in this field.