Objective To investigate the epidemiological features and its potential related risk factors of adult rumination syndrome (ARS) in Chinese naval servicemen, and to provide clinical basis for diagnosis and treatment of ARS. Methods A randomized cluster sampling method was used. Investigation and diagnosis were made according to the Rome Ⅲ Modular Questionnaire from November 2006 to April 2007, and 8600 cases were collected from naval forces. Results 7454 valid questionnaires were retrieved. The overall incidence of ARS was 2.32% (176/7574, male>female). The median age, age of conscription and length of military service were 23, 18 and 4 years respectively. The ARS was most common in unmarried people, who were 21-25 years old holding a high school diploma, with a 1-4 years military service. The incidence of ARS was different between groups with different gender, age, years of military service and marital status (P＜0.05). No significant difference in the incidence between those with different education levels or blood types. The differences between individuals in ARS group and healthy controls were related to habit of overeating (P=0.0000), picky eating (P=0.0001), addiction to spicy food (P=0.0000), eating hard dry food (P=0.0001), and eating fruits (P=0.0188). Conclusion The overall incidence of ARS in naval force is 2.32%, and it is prevalent in young man. The body weight is an independent risk factor for ARS.