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Bystander Effect Induced by UV Radiation; why should we be interested?

Keywords: czerniak z o liwy , ultraviolet radiation , Bystander Effect , Genomic Instability , Oxidative Stress , skin cancers , malignant melanoma , promieniowanie ultrafioletowe

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The bystander effect, whose essence is an interaction of cells directly subjected to radiation with adjacent non-subjected cells, via molecular signals, is an important component of ionizing radiation action. However, knowledge of the bystander effect in the case of ultraviolet (UV) radiation is quite limited. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species generated by UV in exposed cells induce bystander effects in non-exposed cells, such as reduction in clonogenic cell survival and delayed cell death, oxidative DNA damage and gene mutations, induction of micronuclei, lipid peroxidation and apoptosis. Although the bystander effect after UV radiation has been recognized in cell culture systems, its occurrence in vivo has not been studied. However, solar UV radiation, which is the main source of UV in the environment, may induce in human dermal tissue an inflammatory response and immune suppression, events which can be considered as bystander effects of UV radiation. The oxidative damage to DNA, genomic instability and the inflammatory response may lead to carcinogenesis. UV radiation is considered one of the important etiologic factors for skin cancers, basal- and squamous-cell carcinomas and malignant melanoma. Based on the mechanisms of actions it seems that the UV-induced bystander effect can have some impact on skin damage (carcinogenesis?), and probably on cells of other tissues. The paper reviews the existing data about the UV-induced bystander effect and discusses a possible implication of this phenomenon for health risk.


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