Sputum specimens are of essential importance in the diagnosis to pulmonary tuberculosis. In this study, we decided to investigate the usage of sputum smear in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in a Chest Diseases Hospital. The 117 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis are investigated retrospectively who were treated in the hospital in 2004 year. The cases were grouped according to the history of diseases and the definitions of cases (new / old). Seventy nine of our patients were male, 38 were female, and the mean age was 31 ±14 year. The diagnostic methods were sputum smear examination in 96 patients and clinical-radiological in 21 patients. Sputum smear positivity is %83.3 in new cases and %76.2 in retreatment patients. Invas ve or non nvas ve procedures were not applied for evaluation of tuberculosis in any patients who were not spontaneously producing sputum. Our results suggest that for patients who are unable to spontaneously produce sputum, invasive and noninvasive next level technics should be considered.